Crisia, L, Supliment nr. 1, 2020
1.Gelu Daniel Serea, ANTROPONIMIA DIN COMITATUL BIHOR ÎN SECOLELE XI-XIV
THE ANTHROPONOMASTICS IN BIHOR COUNTY DURING THE 11TH – 14TH CENTURIES
The anthroponomastics of Bihor dating from the 12th century until the 14th century represents a rich field of study for the historical research, an area which sheds light on features of the past that usually elude the specialized and acknowledged research. The anthropological approach is a different yet interesting and innovative endeavor with a view to probing into the past by emphasizing the people’s lives and by overcoming prejudices; nevertheless remembering that the past unfolds and extends in a present continuum.
2. Traian Ostahie, IMAGINEA REGELUI LADISLAU CEL SFÂNT ÎN ISTORIOGRAFIA MAGHIARĂ
THE IMAGE OF KING LADISLAUS THE SAINT IN HUNGARIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY
King Ladislaus the Saint of Hungary (1077–1095) is one of the well known kings of the Arpadian dynasty. He enjoyed respect both during life and after death. The posterity always paid homage to him, talking about him in various hypostases: legislator, protector of the nation, defender of the needy, quick mediator to the divinity. Scientific research has not been left behind either. From the 18th century to the present, timidly, numerous studies, works have been published that have focused on Saint Ladislaus. A good part of them treated only a certain side or quality of him. However, there are also some monographs written under the influence of the period in which they were developed and dedicated to him.
3. Maria Ungur, VIAȚĂ COTIDIANĂ. OBICEIURI ȘI TRADIȚII LA ROMÂNI REFLECTATE ÎN RELATĂRILE CĂLĂTORILOR STRĂINI (SECOLUL AL XV-LEA – ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI AL XVIII-LEA)
DAILY LIFE. THE ROMANIANS’ CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS REFLECTED IN THE TRAVEL DIARIES OF THE FOREIGN TRAVELERS (15th CENTURY – BEGINNING OF THE 18th CENTURY)
During the 14th – 18th centuries, the Romanian space was crossed by numerous foreign travelers who, through travel diaries, left us valuable information about the Romanian countries and their inhabitants. Of course, it is subjective information, which comes from travellers who have had a different view of the places they have travelled. From the crowd of travelers who traveled through the Romanian space between the 14th and 18th centuries, only those who spent more time in the Romanian countries wrote about the daily life, customs and traditions of the Romanian people. They described their places, people and clothing, daily life, customs and traditions, revealing aspects of life that we do not find in political documents.
4. Sergiu Boțolin, CONDUCEREA REGIONALĂ A BASARABIEI. VIZIUNI TEORETICE ȘI APLICAȚII PRACTICE ALE CENTRULUI ÎN PRIMUL SFERT AL SECOLULUI AL XIX-LEA
REGIONAL LEADERSHIP OF BESSARABIA. THEORETICAL VISIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE CENTRE IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE 19th CENTURY
Starting from the idea that the empire does not identify itself with a monolithic structure, but rather with a network of complex relations arbitrated by the Center, and stimulated by the Periphery, which involves asymmetrical elements of social, economic and cultural life, we need to reconsider a complex reconstruction of the Center-periphery interferences regarding the history of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire. The integration of Bessarabia did not follow a simple model transposition, but had an individual character, characterized by an alternation and / or a folding of several political-administrative models. The regional administrative system underwent mutations as a result of paradigm shifts at the Centre, which in turn were influenced by peripheral reactions.In this sense, it is important to analyze the behavior of the regional leadership. It had to build an effective dialogue with the local elite by acting according to the instructions from the Center.
5. Mircea Ovidiu Marți, ASPECTE PRIVIND NUPȚIALITATEA LA POPULAȚIA ORTODOXĂ DIN ARAD, LA SFÂRȘITUL SECOLULUI AL XIX-LEA ȘI ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI AL XX-LEA
ASPECTS CONCERNING THE MARIAGE OF THE ORTHODOX POPULATION IN ARAD, AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 20THCENTURY
The multiethnic and multi-confessional presence provides a Central European specificity to the town of Arad. Being well mixed in everyday reality, the Romanian and Serbian orthodox communities will succeed in preserving a balance, in spite of the marginalization coming from the Hungarian part, that wanted to repress any attempt for the affirmation of national and religious identity. Being a minority to the Hungarian population, the Romanians and Serbians will continue cohabitation, in spite of the disagreements existing over time on religious issues.
The double tendency of endogamic and exogamic marriages reveals the progressive side of the society, that of breaking away from the traditional forms of cohabitation. Being in a period of demographic transition, the urban society will follow naturally the course of the changes that were made, especially when it comes to individual consciousness tempted to reject any form of constraint which could limit the freedom of expression.
In the case of the Romanian and Serbian orthodox people, the traditional forms of expression had correspondence in a considerable number of citizens. Everyday reality, with its cultural and spiritual models, imposes a certain standard of behavior upon the civil society, a standard that is reflected in the marriage conduct as well.
6. Dănuț – Emanuel Poduț, ASPECTE PRIVIND COMPORTAMENTUL DEMOGRAFIC ÎN CADRUL UNEI COMUNITĂȚI DE NEOPROTESTANȚI DIN ZONA CURTICI, JUDEȚUL ARAD, LA SFÂRȘITUL SECOLULUI AL XIX – LEA ȘI ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI AL XX – LEA
ASPECTS REGARDING DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOR WITHIN A COMMUNITY OF NEO-PROTESTANTS IN THE CURTICI AREA, ARAD COUNTY, AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY
We are trying to take a broader look at the neo-Protestant cults in the rural areas of Arad County, especially in Curtici. We set out to follow the beginnings of the neo-Protestant communities and their evolution in the early years after their appearance in this locality.
7. Ioana Blajec, Cosmin Patca, CASTELUL DIN CIUTELEC – ASPECTE ISTORICO-SOCIALE ȘI ARHITECTURALE
THE CIUTELEC CASTLE – HISTORICAL-SOCIAL AND ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS
The Wertheimstein-Rothschild Castle and the Wertheimstein Mansion are located in Ciutelec, Tăuteu commune, Bihor County. Initially, they had a residential function and later, during the nationalization period, the entire ensemble came into the possession of the Romanian state. It is currently being used by the Ciutelec Care and Assistance Center for the elderly and by the Recovery and Rehabilitation Center for theadults with disabilities. Built at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century by two of the richest and most influential families in Europe, the Rothschild Castle and the Wertheimstein Mansion are not included on the List of Historical Monuments 2015, Bihor County. They do not contain spectacular architectural elements, being made in a simple style, but they represent a distinct element in the architecture of Bihor county‘s village. Symbol of the modern Western world, the Ciutelec Castle has left deep traces in the collective mind of the traditional society from Bihor county. The reconstruction of the historical-social and architectural aspects could contribute to the inclusion of the Ciutelec Castle in a tourist circuit.
8. Mircea Blaga, PARADIGME ECONOMICE ÎN ROMÂNIA POSTBELICĂ. ÎNFIINȚAREA SUCURSALEI ARAD A BĂNCII „ALBINA” DIN SIBIU
ECONOMIC PARADIGMS IN POST-WAR ROMANIA. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ARAD BRANCH OF THE “ALBINA” BANK FROM SIBIU
The economic situation of post-war Romania was deplorable, the inflation causing havoc. However, the managers of the „Albina” Bank in Sibiu decide to open a new branch in Banat. In this paper we try to bring to light the reasons why the bankers made development plans during a period of economic crisis, highlighting the economic paradigms of 1945-1946. On the one hand, we have bankers who were hoping for an economic recovery and, on the other, we have the government that is slowly and surely heading Romania toward a communist direction.
9. Gheorghe Marian, ASPECTE DEMOGRAFICE PRIVIND COMUNITĂȚILE REFORMATE DIN COMITATUL ARAD LA 1900
DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS REGARDING THE REFORMED COMMUNITIES OF ARAD COUNTY, IN 1900
The ideas generated by Martin Luther’s 95 theses, displayed on the door of the church in Wittenberg, have quickly stirred up the Western world, generating a change in the religious architecture of the time. The Reformation, as it remained in the European consciousness, has also penetrated into Transylvania, forming new religious communities, other than the Catholic and the Orthodox ones. These Reformed communities (Calvinist, Lutheran, Unitarian) have, as well, emerged in Arad County, so that, in 1900, according to the census of the authorities, they were visible throughout the entire area.
10. Cosmin Patca, ŞCOALA DE LA ANNALES – O NOUĂ PERSPECTIVĂ ASUPRA ISTORIEI
ANNALES SCHOOL – A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON HISTORY
The Annales school, which developed in the first decades of the twentieth century, has reformed the historical writing in crisis. The New History has assumed a new paradigm in the reconstruction of the past, the interdisciplinarity becoming a constant. History has opened up systematically and has come into more and more contact with other disciplines: geography, demography, sociology, psychology, ethnology, linguistics. This openness and shift of history to other sciences meant a substantial methodological gain, an extension of the field of research and the emergence of new, border fields of study (historical demography, historical anthropology, historical geography). The limits of history have continually expanded. The historian has had to constantly expand his arsenal of methods and means, to change his discourse and presentation in close collaboration with the other social sciences.
11. Nicola Perencin, LAZĂR ȘĂINEANU: FIABE ROMENE IN PROSPETTIVA COMPARATA
LAZĂR ȘĂINEANU’S ROMANIAN FAIRY TALES – A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
The paper provides an overview about the Romanian philologist Lazar Șăineanu and his Romanian Fairy Tales – A Comparative Study, appeared in 1895 and re-edited in 1978 by Ovidiu Bîrlea. The article opens with a bio-bibliographical presentation of the author, who, having suffered discrimination for his Jewish origins, had to emigrate and died in Paris. His attention to popular culture led him to deal with folklore and linguistics, first Romanian and then French. The volume Romanian Fairy Tales includes around 500 texts. Romanian documentation is constantly compared not only with Greek and Latin myths but also with Romance, German, Russian and Balkan traditions. The material is organized after Von Hahn’s classification, which is the most obsolete detail, still missing a rigorous definition of «type». Nevertheless, the folkloric index largely anticipates the catalog of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson, having therefore relevance for the history of folkloric methodology. In addition to this, I must point out that studies comparing classical mythology and Romanian folklore are very rare, even if Romanian traditions still preserve a unique background of ancient myths, rituals and initiations. The conclusion shows why it would be appropriate to reread Șăineanu’s work in the light of subsequent methodological progress (Propp, Ginzburg, Eliade, Oișteanu).
12. Antonia Mihaela Silaghi, IMAGINEA LUI PETRE P. PANAITESCU ÎN DOSARELE SECURITĂȚII
THE IMAGE OF PETRE P. PANAITESCU IN THE INTELLIGENCE FILES OF THE COMMUNIST PERIOD
Petre P. Panaitescu was a Romanian historian and philologist, born in Iași, in 1900. Renowned Slavist and historian of the Middle Ages, Panaitescu was noted by the directions imposed in his research, by the novelty elements brought into Romanian historiography. He was part of the Peasant Party, the Liberal Party and then from 1937 was part of the “legionary movement”. He was considered a close relative of Horia Sima and other prominent legionaries. He ran the magazine of the movement called “the Word” and held the position of rector of the University in Bucharest during the legionary senate. He has contributed to increasing the prestige of the movement through speeches addressed to students in the faculty and through press articles. After the legionary rebellion he will be imprisoned in Caracal for 6 months and released due to the intervention of some guild colleagues. He kept in touch with the legionary members who went abroad, for which he will be re-incarcerated in the Târgu Jiu camp in 1942, and in 1944 he was sent to the Caracal camp accused of collaborating with them. After his release, he will devote himself to his research work, and when he is coopted to work on Romanian history works he will do so by remaining faithful to the historical truth.
13. Ioana Cosmina Bolba, IOSIF TRIFA. ASPECTE BIOGRAFICE
IOSIF TRIFA. BIOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS
Iosif Trifa was a Romanian Orthodox priest, the founder of the “Oastea Domnului” religious movement in Romania. He receives, from the family, the religious education that will illuminate his entire professional and personal life. Remaining widowed, he decided to keep his pastoral-clerical vocation and, in Sibiu, established the “Oastea Domnului” movement, in 1923.
His pastoral-missionary activity includes summaries of writings, articles, sermons (both in volumes and in periodicals) and even the purchase of a typography. The disputes related to the religious movement with different representatives of the BOR (including the one of the metropolitan Nicolae Bălan) and the health problems decimated the person of the priest Iosif Trifa. He died in 1938, in Sibiu, after a long and difficult physical and spiritual suffering.
The „Oastea Domnului” movement is still current today. Father Trifa was posthumously rehabilitated in 1990 by the Romanian Orthodox Church.
14. Beáta Ménesi, ASPECTE DIN ACTIVITATEA COLECTIVULUI DE CENZURĂ DE LA BRAŞOV. ANUL 1961
ASPECTS OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE CENSORSHIP COLLECTIVE FROM BRAŞOV. YEAR 1961
The censorship collective from Brasov, through its quality of a territorial structure of the General Directorate of the Press and Printing (GDPP), ensured the local control of the entire information system, thus stopping the dissemination to the public of all materials that contravened the policy of the communist Party and Government.
In 1961, the collective from Brasov, consisting of three proxies, Mureșan Constantin (head of the collective), Hügel Ştefan and Adami Rudolf, carried out the censorship work in the following sectors: local press, local publishing production, radio station, printing enterprise, cultural activities, visual agitation. The control work of the censors materialized through numerous interventions, which can be grouped into two categories: the politicalideological interventions and the interventions on the line of the instructions, the work dispositions received from the Bucharest. In addition to the interventions performed by the collective, whether they were opportune or unnecessary, the proxies had also leaks, mistakes that showed up in the published materials.
For the continuous improvement of the work, the censors were concerned with their permanent political-ideological training, they were coerced to study and to „thoroughly” assimilate the provisions of the GDPP, to pay maximum attention to the control of all materials.
15. Roland Olah, EPISOADE ALE TRECERII FRAUDULOASE A GRANIȚEI DE VEST DE CĂTRE PERSONALUL MILITAR, ÎN ANII ’80
EPISODES OF ILLEGAL CROSSING OF THE WESTERN BORDER BY THE MILITARY PERSONNEL, IN THE ‘80s
The economic situation, since the late ‘80s, has become difficult for a large part of society, but only a part of them chose to trespass illegally the border. Under such circumstances, on the Romanian borders with Hungary and Yugoslavia, a true exodus was developing. Among the participants to this phenomenon were the military personnel, those that endured the food shortage and the difficulties of life, as well as the rest of Romanian society. The methods used by the military, on the way to the West, do not differ from those used by the ordinary people. They reached the border area by train and proceeded to cross the border on foot.
16. Gabriel Cheregi, LEGĂTURILE ȘI PREOCUPĂRILE ȘTIINȚIFICE A DOI ARHEOLOGI ROMÂNI: MIRCEA PETRESCU-DÎMBOVIȚA (IAȘI) ȘI IVAN ORDENTLICH (TEL AVIV)
THE SCIENTIFIC CONNECTIONS AND PREOCCUPATIONS OF TWO ROMANIAN ARCHAEOLOGISTS: MIRCEA PETRESCU-DÎMBOVIȚA (IAȘI) AND IVAN ORDENTLICH (TEL AVIV)
Our study has as subject the correspondence between professor Mircea Petrescu-Dîmbovița, from Iași, one of the most well-known and appreciated Romanian specialists in the field of ancient history and archeology, and Ivan Ordentlich, his former student and PhD student, at the Faculty of History of “Al . I. Cuza” University from Iași, left for Israel, where he builds a beautiful career. The letters highlight many of the valuable concerns and achievements of the two archaeologists, from 1979-1983, which science and work brought them closer, beyond the ideological barriers of the countries in which they lived and worked. This correspondence, or at least part of it, I have found in the Personal Fund of Professor Mircea Petrescu-Dîmbovița, kept at Iași County Service of the National Archives.
17. Andreea DAVID, ESILIO E CRITICA LETTERARIA: IL CASO DI MATEI CĂLINESCU
EXILE AND LITERARY CRITICISM:THE CASE OF MATEI CĂLINESCU
The intellectual path of the Romanian literary critic and theoretician Matei Călinescu (1934-2009) shows the strong influence of exile on the broad field of literary studies. Firstly, the encounter with the intellectually thriving free world stresses the fragile basis of Romanian literary criticism. Indeed, starting from the 60’s, Romanian literary criticism had struggled against political meddling. Romanian intellectuals had claimed the autonomy of literature, but they failed at elaborating proper theoretical arguments and opening to other fields of knowledge. Furthermore, the literary critic in exile is, by his very nature, a comparativist. He is a bridge between different literary and cultural universes. By analyzing Matei Călinescu’s case study, the following piece casts new light on the interpretation of Romanian literary criticism, placing it in a transnational perspective.
18. Florentina Barta, POPULAȚIA ȘCOLARĂ A LICEULUI „EMANUIL GOJDU” ÎN PERIOADA POSTBELICĂ
THE SCHOOL POPULATION OF THE “EMANUIL GOJDU” HIGH SCHOOL IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD
This paper presents the evolution of the school population in the events that followed the liberation of the city of Oradea and the re-establishment of “Emanuil Gojdu” High School, by the end of the Second World War. It also covers the transformations that took place during the communist regime, which affected aspects regarding the number of students, but also the origin and their social condition.After the dark period of the Vienna Dictate, which ended with the city’s release on October 12, 1944, the “Emanuil Gojdu” High School is re-established under the name of the Romanian State High School, the courses starting on December 5, 1944. In the following decades, both the name of the educational unit, as well as the high school organization, have undergone successive changes. After a short period, 1945-1946, in which it returned to the initial name of “Emanuil Gojdu” High School, the school was passed under the tutelage of the Orthodox Church, becoming – by Decree no. 782/1946 – The Romanian-Orthodox High School “Emanuil Gojdu”, so that, in 1948, in the context of the nationalization of the confessional schools, they would change their name again, this time in the High School Nr. 1.
19. Antonia Izabela Potroviță, REALISMUL SOCIALIST MANIFESTAT ÎN DOMENIUL ARTELOR PLASTICE DIN ROMÂNIA COMUNISTĂ. SCURTĂ PERIODIZARE
SOCIALIST REALISM MANIFESTED IN THE FIELD OF FINE ARTS FROM COMMUNIST ROMANIA. A SHORT PERIODIZATION
After the Second World War, the history of art in Europe will follow new stylistic trend that will be combined with the new political realities. For Eastern Europe, art is now becoming an ideological weapon to strengthen the new communist vision and to form the new man, and especially to form a new type of art, known as socialist realism. With the entry of Romania into the communist sphere, the artistic field was subordinated to the totalitarian ideology. Throughout the communist regime, the plastic arts in Romania experienced several stages that corresponded with the comands from the USSR. Romanian art – under the leadership of Gheorghe Gheorghiu- Dej and Nicolae Ceaușescu – experienced the greatest manipulation.
20. Amalia Gabriela Racolța (Mojolic), INDUSTRIALIZARE ŞI URBANIZARE ÎN BAIA MARE (1948- 1965). STUDIU DE CAZ: CONDIȚIILE DE MUNCĂ ÎN INDUSTRIA GREA
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION IN BAIA MARE (1948- 1965). CASE STUDY: WORKING CONDITIONS IN THE HEAVY INDUSTRY
Against the background of the economic policies applied by the communist authorities in the middle of the 20th century, the workers played a central role in transforming the state according to the Soviet model. In this material I presented some aspects related to the working conditions in which the workers of Baia Mare performed, in direct connection with the level of qualification and their remuneration. The intensive industrialization promoted by the communist elites included in the field of labor and the military miners, who came to fill the lack of the labor arms registered in the mid-1950.
21. Raluca VEREȘ, ROMÂNIA „TEZELOR DIN IULIE, 1971”. PAUL GOMA, ÎNTRE SCRIITURĂ ȘI DREPTURILE OMULUI
ROMANIA OF THE “JULY THESES, 1971”. PAUL GOMA, BETWEEN WRITING AND HUMAN RIGHTS
There is only one way to better understand what really happened during the Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu’s national-communist dictatorship in the late 70s and the 80s: read the “July Theses” delivered before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). Of Maoist and North Korean inspiration, the “July Theses”, by their full name “Proposed Measures for the Improvement of Political-Ideological Activity of the Marxist-Leninist Education of Party Members, of All Working People” stroke the Romanian Nation through what had best: the cultural elite. Those were the basis of what was known as the “Mini Cultural Revolution”, a huge unexpected backwards leap to the Stalinization of the culture. The main mechanism which better kept up the momentum was the institutional censorship and, later on, starting with the 1977, the self-censorship induced by the fear not to break the rules, not to be against these “Theses” whatsoever, not to disturb the supreme National Leader and Authorities.
The cultural elite could not do much and the real opposition was made by very few persons, one of them a writer, Paul Goma, recognized by the international opinion as the “Romanian Solzhenitsyn”. Paul Goma fiercely e fearlessly fought for freedom of speech and individual liberties. He wrote about the main themes of human rights seriously endangered during Communism era, calling upon himself for the anger and the severe reaction of the Romanian Communist leaders of the time. He even started apetition called “Charta ʼ77”, and wrote a letter to the Belgrade Conference of Human Rights in 1977. He spoke out important matters, but found no real support among his colleagues. The “Securitate”, the Romanian Political Police, started to persecute him and his family, but as he continued his mission, they hit him where it hurt most: his writings, which he was asked to drastically censor and “adapt” in order to be published or be banned. Paul Goma eventually went into exile in Paris, where he died on the 25th of March 2020 alone and forgotten, unfairly ignored and not mentioned in educational books and manuals of Romanian Literature.
22. Marcel Revenco, DINAMICA STRUCTURII ECONOMIEI REGIUNII DE DEZVOLTARE CENTRU A REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ÎNTRE ANII 1995-2017
THE DYNAMICS OF THE ECONOMY STRUCTURE OF THE DEVELOPMENT REGION CENTER OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BETWEEN 1995-2017
The current structure of the economy of Moldova is getting closer to that of the developed countries, where the main role as a share in the formation of the GDP is played by the services sector, being followed by the industry and the lower weight returning to agriculture. The analysis of the existing situation within the Center Development Region is a study designed to create a comprehensive overview of the social and economic trends of development of the region, whose main purpose is to evaluate the level of economic development, which includes the sectorial profile, and the comparative analysis, with the average on the Republic,of the dynamics of the structure of the economy sectors of the region.
23. Alina – Carmen Brihan, DEZVOLTARE LOCALĂ ÎN CADRUL GUVERNANȚEI MULTINIVEL A UNIUNII EUROPENE. STUDIU DE CAZ: JUDEȚUL BIHOR
LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. CASE STUDY: BIHOR COUNTY
The year 2020 represents an important year both for the European Union and for the local public authorities of Romania. As regards the European level, the year 2020 represents, on one hand, the end of a multiannual financial framework (2014-2020) and of the effort made, over the last 10 years, by the European institutions and all levels of government in the Member States, to implement the “Europe 2020” strategy, and on the other hand, the beginning of the financial year 2021 – 2027 and the formulation of the new directions for European development, for the next decade. Considering Romania’s quality as a member state of the European Union, these strategic and financial evolutions at European level are of major importance for the Romanian public authorities because these will also influence the development directions of our communities. As for the level of local government, 2020 is not only the year in which the Romanian counties will have a new leadership – in the context of elections for the county and local councils, but also the year in which new local elected officials will have to show increased competences in implementing the new European agenda and its according European funds, in order to reduce the economic, social and territorial disparities in their communities and to ensure their sustainable development.
Thus, this paper, through its three parts, addresses, with reference to the present and the future: the European strategic priorities for the regional and local development; the regional and local development objectives of the North – West Development Region; but also, as a case study, the analysis of the local development electoral strategies for the 2020 – 2024 mandate of the Bihor County Council.