Crisia LI, Supliment nr. 2, 2021
Regional Development at the Borders of the European Union
(proceedings of the Jean Monnet international conference,
Oradea, 5th - 7th of November 2020)
ARTICOL INTRODUCTIV / INTRODUCTORY ARTICLE
Florentina CHIRODEA, Constantin-Vasile ȚOCA, Luminița ȘOPRONI
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT THE BORDERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION INTRODUCTORY STUDIES
STUDII / STUDIES
1. Luminița ȘOPRONI, Alina STOICA
THE COMPETITIVE AGGLOMERATION, POLE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
The global competition determines the states and regions to follow the industrial policy based on the competitive agglomerations, which supports and increases their economic competitiveness. The cluster policy allows the consideration of local development conditions and the implementation of growth programs that contribute to the economic growth and the establishment of a balanced social environment. Therefore, it is obvious that current economic policies are reorienting towards the microeconomic elements of development, as the economic climate and the legal framework are no longer sufficient to achieve economic progress.
Keywords: regional growth, competitiveness, cluster, industrial park
2. Alina STOICA, Luminița ȘOPRONI
CULTURAL NETWORKS FOR COOPERATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIELD
The transition of culture from classical and conservative aspects to assuming the role of socio-economic cohesion factor, felt especially in the last period, changes the agendas of many actors on the international stage. Among them, the European Union includes culture among the areas for which it develops policies and creates tools that ensure cultural development. However, these initiatives are influenced by the issues and interests of the Member States, on the basis of the subsidiarity principle, according to which national policies prevail over cultural competences.
The diversity of forms of expression and the interdependence of the different components of culture, such as essays and the case of cultural networks, generate bridges between the layers of society (vertically) or between communities (horizontally). These allow individuals or groups to envision a future in relation to the past and present or to redefine the „architecture of the value model”. We are not referring to the „hard core of fundamental traits”, but to the „related values” influenced by the universalization and uniformity of images and ideas promoted by the media and cultural industries. The fundamental values are not touched by the phenomenon of cultural homogenization; instead, their permanence contributes to maintaining cultural diversity in, the study aims to highlight a mechanism for creating cultural networks within the framework offered by the European Union.
3. Ioana Lucia BORDEIANU
BORDER GUARDS‘ EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEW EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF SPECIFIC TRAINING. INTEROPERABILITY GAINED AFTER IMPLEMENTING THE COMMON CORE CURRICULUM FOR BORDER AND COAST GUARDS AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL
The Sectoral Qualifications Framework (SQF) for Border Guarding (BG) is a framework of job competences and learning outcomes for border and coast guards, in EU, in the field of border security and management. At the national level there are different training structures, so therefore SQF for BG is ensuring a harmonized training and education. At the EU level was developed a common tool for ensuring job competencies, Common Core Curriculum (CCC) which covers the SQF for BG, level 4 job competences. The main objective of this research is to offer a comparison between different European countries education system and their learning outcomes for border and coast guards, with an accent on implementation of common standards for border and coast guard training, in order to achieve interoperability. Also, we focus on the tools used for implementation of the Common Core Curriculum in the context of the new European system of specific training.
Keywords: border guard, European education, SQF, interoperability, implementation
4. Mirela MĂRCUȚ
NEW CHALLENGES, OLD CONCEPTS. THE EU’S PURSUIT OF DIGITAL SOVEREIGNTY IN THE PANDEMIC AGE
This article details the changing narratives surrounding sovereignty that surface in the post-sovereign world. Faced with unprecedented challenges, the European Union has focused its digital policy on achieving digital sovereignty. The research uses insights from neofunctionalism to assert that the EU is building path dependency in digital affairs by using the digital sovereignty discourse. Far from being a mere catchphrase, digital sovereignty has become a priority for EU leaders as a means of further integration, fueled by the previous regulatory efforts that helped build the Digital Single Market. Once this new space has been built, the EU is asserting its authority and control over its resources and tools. As such, the aim of the article is to detail the main drivers for EU digital sovereignty. The research identifies internal drivers (the need for further integration post-Brexit, convergence) and external drivers (competition with the US and China, Big Tech companies).
Keywords: European Union, digital sovereignty, neofunctionalism, path dependency
5. Mariana Viorica BUDA
TRANSLATIONS IN REGIONAL LANGUAGES – MARK OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
In a world where we try to simplify everything, translation can seem like a provocation for nonprofessionals. Besides, English has always had the role of lingua franca and many consider that multilingual translation could be avoided, thereby reducing costs, if only English were used in the European institutions. In the European Union, there are clear language policies for the use of all the languages, including regional or less used languages. The aim of this article is to stress the fact that translating into a regional language is a proof of the development of a region and even if the process of development isn‟t linear, the existence of translations is a very important step.
Keywords: regional languages, translation in regional languages, language policy, measures for regional languages
6. Mihaela CREȚU, Alina STOICA
THE BRAIN DRAIN PHENOMENON IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS EFFECTS ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The fall of the communist bloc in 1990 generated major political-economic and spiritual changes with a drastic impact on the society of ex-communist states, but especially on those who were part of the USSR, such as the case of the Republic of Moldova, which gained independence in August 1991. The lack of clear political ideologies and the preoccupation with the rhetoric of pan-Romanism and pan-Slavism generated serious problems in the society of the Republic. These in turn determined the sharpening of the brain drain phenomenon towards the West, but also that of the emigration of labor force abroad in search of a decent living.
Migration is an evolving, multilateral and intense phenomenon on the eastern border of the European Union, and obviously in the Republic of Moldova. Almost a quarter of the population of the Republic of Moldova currently lives abroad, whether it is a temporary stay or a longer period of time – with the desire to return to Moldova or to remain permanently in the country where they settled. more years.
The present study performs a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the emigration of creative power, but also of the young labor force from the Republic of Moldova, especially from the Peresecina-Orhei region, considered relevant by us because it is one of the largest localities in the Republic of Moldova. The paper brings to the attention of those interested the causes of increased emigration and the lack of adequate policies to reduce it. In the center of our attention being the young people and the newly formed families.
Keywords: globalization, brain drain, Republic of Moldova, emigration, labour force
7. Zsófia SZANISZLÓ
THE GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE: EAST OR WEST?
The relationship between the European Union and the countries of the Eastern Partnership, the results and the impact of cooperation are of high relevance in the current geopolitical discussions. The countries of the Eastern Partnership (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine) include those countries that are although under Russian influence (to a certain extent) but are also open towards the European Union. The EU has clearly defined goals with these eastern countries where north sides benefit from making cooperation stronger. The paper describes the geopolitical situation of Ukraine through its historical vicissitudes and recent events, covering both the great power interests and the natural basis of it all.
Keywords: Ukraine, Russia, European Union, geopolitics, geography
8. Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT
TOWARDS MORE SOCIAL LEGITIMACY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: ADDRESSING INEQUALITIES AT THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE EU
Even in terms of procedure the EU‟s legal acquis and the primacy of union law is fully legitimized and it‟s rebound it is to be found due the mechanisms of its multi-level governance system, there are some doubts regarding economic inequalities in terms of income, living conditions and working conditions in several regions of the EU. Citizens from the EU, in the name of democracy, in a formal legitimacy mandate their state to negotiate supranational policies, laws and regulations in their behalf. The European Social Model, where social dialogue has been entrusted with the role of a central pillar, endured some challenges lately and therefor needs to make big efforts balancing the inequalities and addressing a lot of issues as it is youth unemployment, solidarity, poverty and life quality, inclusiveness and so on. Europe new social agenda and EU social future means has to find way to sustain standards of living, to create more and better jobs, to promote cross-border movements of people regulating social security rights for mobile citizens, on cross-border health care and last but not least recognition of diplomas. A more social Europe means that EU would support Member State action in the area of social convergence for better outcomes.
Keywords: legitimacy, inequality, solidarity
9. POLGÁR István
INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE AND CORPORATE IDENTITY. TOOLS FOR PROMOTING CROSS-BORDER EMPLOYMENT IN THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN CROSS-BORDER REGION
As the EU takes on new members and its external boundaries gradually shift, socio-economic and political transformations are taking place at the borders that not only adumbrate new regional development opportunities but also many potential problems and tensions. In an enlarged Europe there are necessary long-term commitments to support local and regional initiatives of cross-border cooperation. Geographic labour mobility within EU member countries – both in terms of trans-national migration as well as cross-border commuting has remained at a relatively low level until now. The topic of labour market mobility is of particular importance in border regions, as it is part of the every-day life of citizens to cross the border, either to get to their work places or for leisure purposes. Whereas much research activity has been devoted over the years to different kinds of migration, the other type of geographic labour mobility, cross-border commuting has been to a much lesser degree object of research studies. The paper explores the significance of the state border in the daily life of the border landers, the inhabitants from the Hungarian-Romanian border, focusing in details on data collected from the Bihar-Hajdu Bihar Euroregion.
Keywords: intercultural, labour, employment, cross-border, Euroregion
10. Constantin-Vasile ȚOCA, Cosmin CHIRIAC, Florentina CHIRODEA
EVALUATION OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION AT THE ROMANIAN – HUNGARIAN BORDER
The Romanian – Hungarian border is a facilitator for the various NUTS forms, which, through the wide range of instruments and forms of cross-border cooperation facilitated by the European Union’s programs and policies, develops various forms of cross-border cooperation with beneficial results on both sides of the border.
In this direction we will carry out an evaluation of the Romanian-Hungarian border regions, trying to identify the various forms of cooperation, such as Euroregions or cross-border cooperation programs which are instruments that can add value to this region and provide sustainable development in the target region.
Keywords: Evaluation, border regions, Romanian-Hungarian Borders, CBC
11. Cosmin CHIRIAC, Florentina CHIRODEA, Constantin-Vasile ȚOCA
MONOCENTRIC ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, POLYCENTRIC BORDER AREAS? A LOOK AT THE BIHOR –HAJDÚ-BIHAR EURO-REGION
The Bihor and Hajdú-Bihar counties, from both sides of the Romanian – Hungarian border, are, in different degrees, monocentric administrative units, as it is shown in this paper. Each one has an administrative centre that is demographically and economically dominant. They were important urban centres in most of their history and have remained important during the communist era that has dominated Eastern Europe for almost half a century. In that period, polycentrism was a debated concept revolving around political autonomy and control (citation). In this century, Polycentricity is another debated concept, promoted by the European Union as a means of achieving territorial cohesion throughout the EU. In this paper, the main question revolves around how much the permeable borders of the EU, though sometimes confronted with the national interest, can pave the way to polycentric areas. After a look at the speciality literature to explain the concept and to identify ways to measure it, empirical research will provide an answer to the question of whether the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euro-region is or can be a polycentric urban area.
Keywords: polycentricity, Euro-regions, cross-border cooperation, Bihor -Hajdú-Bihar
12. Cristina-Maria DOGOT
WATERSIDE BORDER CITIES IN ROMANIA AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS
Living in border regions can be a particular experience both for citizens and for the public administration of the cities. From west to east, the main border cities of Romania benefited, according to their efforts and interests, from cross-border cooperation programmes and were and/or are involved in cross-border cooperation projects with similar partners from the neighbouring states. This study focuses on cross-border cooperation programmes developed by cities situated on the waterside border or very near by a waterside border and that have not terrestrial borders with the neighbour states. Considering the particularities of these areas, this study will draw attention to the specificities of the cooperation programmes developed by these cities, to the benefits and the eventual dynamics that these programmes succeeded in adding to the local communities.
Keywords: waterside border cities, cross-border cooperation, CBC programmes and projects
13. Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC, Volodymyr TOKAR
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION ON THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDY ROMANIA-UKRAINE BORDER
Starting with 2003 the European Union turned its interest in developing the borders with the future neighbours at that time, out of which our interest is on Romania-Ukraine border. Since then, several generations of programs financed projects aiming to boost the cooperation between the communities living along the border, also to develop the economic and social life. The paper aim was to determine the interplay between macroeconomic indicators, export, import and gross product, of Romanian and Ukrainian administrative territories. The evaluation of the defined hypotheses showed no statistically significant influence of economic activity of Romanian regions on Ukrainian ones in G1 (Odesa and Tulcea), G2 (Chernivtsi, Botoșani, Suceava) and partially G3 cross-border regions, namely in all cases of Zakarpattia oblast and gross regional product of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. Maramureș and Satu Mare import were significant for Ivano-Frankivsk export affecting it in different directions, Satu Mare impact was positive, while Maramureș – negative. Therefore, we can assume that Ivano-Frankivsk and Satu Mare had export-import relations. Maramureș export had negative impact on Ivano-Frankivsk export and import, while Satu Mare influence was not significant. Therefore, we can suppose that Maramureș and Ivano-Frankivsk compete for the same markets. The research results indicate that there is need to increase the efficiency of the cross-border programmes in this area or develop better ones to intensify the positive synergy effect on both Romanian and Ukrainian sides. The paper is first part of a larger study concerning the evolution of this border area before the pandemic period, but after each programming period.
Keywords: cross-border cooperation, cross-border programs, regional development, Romania, Ukraine
14. Dan APĂTEANU
THE COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER EUROREGIONS: IS THERE A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE INFLUENCE FROM ITS PUBLIC OPINION PERCEPTION?
The cross-border cooperation is a subject analysed intensively nowadays, as it has many implications for the lives of a large number of people living in the European Union. There is evidence that shows that the borderlands create a local milieu, that has specific geographical, socioeconomic and culturally intrinsic characteristics. The European Union supports the cross-border cooperation by the program Interreg A, that aims to tackle common challenges identified jointly and to exploit the untapped growth potential in border areas. The cooperation in the EU seems to be encouraged, as people trust in the EU, they have a positive image of the EU, they are optimistic about its future, and most importantly, EU citizenship and free movement are seen as main EU achievements, as is evidenced by latest Eurobarometer results. In the Romania-Hungary cross-border area, there are good perspectives for cooperation, as there is a high level of trust between the people.
Keywords: cross-border cooperation, EU, Eurobarometer