Crisia 2007, XXXVII
- Călin GHEMIŞ, ISSUES ON PRE AND PROTOHISTORIC AMBER – In memoriam Curt W. Beck
The present study presents the discoveries of amber pieces from Transylvania discussed in a broader context. The most important discovery of this kind in Transylvania is that of the Cioclovina cave with water (com. Boşorod, jud. Hunedoara), here along with amber pieces being discovered in association pieces of tin, bronze, glass, bone and „pearl paste” as well as two pieces of bone. From a chronological and cultural point of view, these discoveries belong to the Br.D – Ha A range.
The shop presents the analysis of an amber bead from the Great Unguru Cave performed at the Vassar Institute – New York, by the late Professor Curt.W.Beck and Edith Stouth, the conclusion of the two researchers is that the piece from the Great Unguru Cave is of Baltic origin. This fact clarifies the origin of the amber pieces in the discussed area.
- Emilian Teleagă, DIE AUSGRABUNGEN VON NICOLAE CHIDIOŞAN IN DER LA-TENE-ZEITLICHEN NEKROPOLE VON CURTUIUŞENI/ÉRKÖRTVÉLYES (BIHOR, RUMÄNIEN) – NICOLAE CHIDIOŞAN ZUR ERINNERUNG
THE EXCAVATIONS OF NICOLAE CHIDIOȘAN IN THE LA-TENE NECROPOLA FROM CURTUIUŞENI/ÉRKÖRTVÉLYES (BIHOR, ROMANIA) – IN MEMORIAM NICOLAE CHIDIOŞAN
In 2006 we documented nine unique tombs from the La-Tene necropolis from Curtuiuşeni/ Érkörtvélyes, located on the “Égetõ hegy” dune, Bihor County, Romania. These were excavated in 1968 by Nicolae Chidioşan who sketched the plan of the necropolis and established the stratigraphy (annex 1-2). The graves (of burial and cremation in the pit) are arranged in quadrilateral or oval pits, facing NW or NE. In the necropolises of Curtuiuşeni, Ciumeşti and Pişcolt the offering vessels are not found in all the tombs. Formal spectrum of funerary offering vessels, sometimes in a certain combination, differs from that of settlements (Fig. 1). In the tombs from Curtuiuşeni is documented the wearing of metal chain belts, brooches and ring ornaments. The relative chronology of the La-Tene funerary discoveries in the Carpathian basin refers to the four phases of the necropolis from Pişcolt (end of La-Tene B1 – La-Tene C1) and is based on brooches (fig. 2) and annular ornaments. Some port elements can be delimited regionally. Kounov sapropelite bracelets and double iron chain belts with bronze rings and animal head buckles (fig. 5) come from Middle Bohemia. The three or four hollow hemispherical ring ornaments and the spear-shaped buckles (fig. 3-4) are feminine pieces. They represent, like the handle vessels deposited as a funerary offering (fig. 8), a specific development of the Carpathian basin. Eight-shaped chain-link belts are women’s wear from Bavaria to the Carpathian Basin; in the Balkan Peninsula, however, they are attested in graves by men. Four functional types were deposited in the tombs: tall vessels, handle vessels, bowls and cups; tall vessels of type 1 can be dated (fig. 7). The complete version of this article, including Chidioşan’s excavations from the necropolis from Curtuiuşeni will be published in Dacia, 52, 2008.
- Sever DUMITRAŞCU, IERNATICELE (Tacitus, Historiae, III, XLVI)
THE WINTER QUARTERS (TACITUS, HISTORIAE, III, XLVI)
In this study, the author presents, taking into discussion the role of the winter quarters to the Roman army, according to Tacitus, the role of the Dacian lands, the mountains (the higher pastures in summer) and the marshy lands (the lower valleys in winter) from the left banks of the Danube and Tisa rivers, in the context of their “hijacking” by the Roman expansion. Without pastures in winter, the herds of free Dacia would have been disappeared. The situation became desperate for those whose wealth and power were dependent on the number of the herds, which were taken to pasture in the Carpathian Mountains in summer and on the left banks of the Danube and Tisa rivers in winter.
- Corina TOMA, REPERTORIU ORIENTATIV AL DESCOPERIRILOR DACICE DE PE TERITORIUL UNGARIEI
A MAGYARORSZÁG TERÜLETÉRÕL SZÁRMAZÓ DÁK LELETEK TÁJÉKOZTATÓ JELLEGÛ REPERTÓRIUMA
Közleményünkben kisérletet teszünk a Magyarország területérõl származó dák leletek repertóriumának aktualizálására közreadva M. Barbu egy korábban, a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gyûjteményi leltárkönyvei alapján összeállított lelõhelylistáját. A viszonylag nagy számban rögzitett régebbi és újabb leletek közül igen kevés esetben ismertek a leletkörülmények. Legnagyobb részük különbözõ gyûjteményekben õrzött szórványlelet. A hiányos adatok miatt jelen írásunkban kizárólag a leletek ismertetésére és a lelõhelyek topográfiai rögzitésére szoritkoztunk.
A CATALOGUE OF THE DACIAN PERIOD DISCOVERIES FOUND IN THE TERRITORY OF HUNGARY
The paper represents an attempt to achive a catalogue of the Dacian period discoveries found in the territory of Hungary. The information published along the years on the Hungarian reviews (the well-known articles wrote by M. Párducz and Z. Visy) are improved with new findspots reminded by M. Barbu. His list, based on the Hungarian National Museum’s collections, contains about twenty new sites situated between the Tisza and the Danube, a zone poor in finds until now.
Despite of great number of Dacian finds (89 sites) which are included in this catalogue, very few pieces are the result of systematic research and the information we have, are widely dispersed. Taking into account the actual researches stage and also the lack of published, is difficult to reflect the chronology of these findings.
The analysis of the archaeological materials does not present a fully identical picture: one groupe contain only Dacian finds (settlements or isolated finds), another groupe is represented by sites where Dacian and Celtic elements are mixed, and a large groupe presents Dacian materials found in Sarmatian cemetery or settlements. Finnally, is difficult to date Dacian finds, most of them seems to come from the Sarmatian age, but we should reckon material dateable in the LT-age: fully developed Dacian types of objects and the vessels originated from the Vekerzug group (knob-ornamented pots, high-eared cups).
- Sorin BULZAN, Alexandru CIORBA, DATE PRELIMINARE PRIVIND NECROPOLA DIN EPOCA ROMANĂ DE LA ŞIMIAN, “GROAPA CU LUT” (SÁRGAFÖLDES GÖDÖR), JUD. BIHOR.
SARMATIAN CEMETERY FROM ŞIMIAN “GROAPA CU LUT – SÁRGAFÖLDES GÖDÖR
In the summer of year 2006 the inhabitants from Şimian founded some roman period artifacts in old known site from “Groapa cu lut” (Sárgaföldes gödör). In November a rescue excavation was maded for protecting very close area situated near by the clay exploitation. The results of archaeological investigations consist in two inhumations graves (N – S oriented) with interesting inventory. From one of this come silver broch, a roman red ware and 105 beads made from glass, amber and carneol. The second was poor in inventory, just some beads. The both graves were disturbed in antiquity and the bones were discovered without anatomical connection, except just little parts form bodies. Maybe from a grave come a grey color bowl and a fibula of Almgren VI 158 type. The cemetery can be dated in the last decades of the second century and first half of third century or all of this century.
- Ioan CRIŞAN, CRONOLOGIA ÎNCEPUTURILOR AŞEZĂRILOR MEDIEVALE DIN JUDEŢUL BIHOR ŞI REPARTIŢIA LOR GEOGRAFICĂ PE BAZA DESCOPERIRILOR ARHEOLOGICE
THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL SETTLEMENTS FROM BIHOR COUNTY AND THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION BY THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES POINT OF VIEW
At the beginning of the Middle Ages the most characteristic type of habitat was the rural one. The village, as organizational type of the communities, which replaced the dispersed habitat from the migration period, at the end of the 11th century became a complex social and territorial category. Some researches, historians and archaeologists admit that the settlements mentioned in documents of the 11th century appeared at least one or two hundred years before their first documentary attestation, so they should be from the end of the 1st millennium. The village born through the alignment of the husbandries and the agricultural lands nearby the graveyard and the church, the graveyard being the main element, preceding the church. The presence of this two components, church and necropolis, undoubtedly indicate the existence of a mediaeval settlement, even if is not localized yet. From the last centuries of the 1st millennium and the first centuries of the 2nd millennium until the Tartar invasion in 1241, precincts of village indicated by ceramics, necropolis and mediaeval churches are localized on the territory of 73 localities of Bihor County (see the table).
The archaeological excavations indicate that Bihor County was relatively well populated between the 8th and 10th centuries. In several situations there are multileveled sites, because of the settlements between 11th and 13th centuries are situated on the placement of some settlements from previous centuries.
Considering the geographical distribution of the settlements precincts, we should conclude that they are more numerous in the plain territory, both on the higher forested places, and in lower plain, liable to inundation, but with banks like islands. Analyzing the geographical distribution of the documentary attested settlements in Bihor County at the beginning of the Middle Ages to the Tartar invasion in 1241, including the precincts of ones, which weren’t identified archaeologically yet, we can conclude that these are also concentrated in the plain zone (see the annexed maps).
In the present stage of the researches, we can affirm that at the beginning of the Middle Ages, the plain zone was a well populated space, which was able to support the higher zones, too, with a lower density of population.
- Daniela-Monica MITEA, RAPORTURI FEUDALE ÎN CADRUL RELAŢIILOR FRANCO-ENGLEZE (SECOLELE XIII-XV)
FEUDAL ASPECTS OF FRANCO-ENGLISH RELATIONS (13TH-15TH CENTURIES)
The rule of the kings of England, even though within the framework of vassal relations, of vast provinces on (future) French soil, throughout the 13th-14th centuries, has long been a topic of major interest for scholars. Namely the territorial extent and the economic importance of the fiefs, exceeding even that of the king of France’s own estates, calls however for a historical reappraisal of the matter. The conflicts were focused on the concrete, singular and exclusive exercise of sovereignty by both parts, within the legal and political context established by the feudal bounds.
- Alexandru SIMON, ANTI-OTTOMAN WARFARE AND ITALIAN PROPAGANDA: THE CRUSADER BACKGROUND OF THE OTTOMAN RAID ON ORADEA IN 1474
In 1474, 10 years had passed since the last major Hungarian royal action against the Gate. In 1464, Matia Corvin’s second Bosnian campaign had been a relative success. By 1468, a Hungarian-Ottoman agreement had been reached. The armistice, probably valid for two years, had been renewed in 1470 and 1472. However, the Hungarian-Ottoman negotiations of 1473 had failed. Hungary was once again colliding with the Gate. The kingdom’s eastern neighbor, Moldova, was already on that course. On the other hand, for the territorial “connection” between Buda and Suceava, the royal province of Transylvania, a clash with the Turk was far from a priority. The memory of the devastating campaign led by Murad II (1437-1438) or the memory of the most recent Ottoman raids in the Transylvanian Voivodeship (for example in 1469 and 1470), despite the armistice between the king and the sultan, were still alive. In 1474, the Ottomans sacked the central administrative bridge of Hungary, which connected Buda to Transylvania. Hungarian-Ottoman tensions had risen. Neither Matthias nor Mehmed II had succeeded in imposing, diplomatically, on his neighbor (1472-1473). But, after Oradea was burned at the beginning of 1474, the tension created in the kingdom by the sultan even exceeded the anti-Hunian tensions that appeared, also in “Ottoman contexts”, in 1467 and 1471.
- Florina CIURE, INTERFERENZE CULTURALI VENETO–TRANSILVANE NEL CINQUE–SEICENTO
VENETO-TRANSYLVANIAN CULTURAL INTERFERENCES IN THE 16thand 17th CENTURIES
The work on the cultural relations between Venice and Transylvania points out the ways in which the beneficial influences of Humanism and the Renaissance penetrated and spread in Transylvania. A first aspect approached is the one regarding the Transylvanian students who completed their professional training at the University of Padua, University of the Venetian Republic, and who were the main vectors of the diffusion of innovative ideas in the areas of origin, some of them standing out through poems and works published in the city of Padua. Since the fourteenth century many members of the Catholic clergy, as well as many chancellors and notaries, studied at this university, in the sixteenth century most students attended the courses of canon law and then became prepositional, canonical or bishops; in the seventeenth century preferring medicine, philosophy and legal law. Transylvanian students, mostly ethnic Hungarians and Saxons, attended the literary circles of the time, both in Venice and in Padua, and, whether they studied law, ecclesiastical law or medicine, on their return home they spread new ideas and practices, and many among them, as teachers, they shared the experience gained with those who wanted to know. The courses of the University of Padua were also attended by future prominent personalities of Transylvanian political life, the experience gained by them being an advantage in their careers, by taking the pulse of Venetian political life, thus easily individualizing the attitude adopted in most cases by the Lagoon Republic, as well as the functioning of the administrative apparatus in the city of the Doge.
- Petru ARDELEAN, ASPECTE ALE PROBLEMEI ALCOOLISMULUI REFLECTATE ÎN REVISTA BISERICA ŞI ŞCOALA (SFÂRŞITUL SECOLULUI AL XIX-LEA ŞI ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI AL XX-LEA)
ASPECTS OF THE ALCOHOLISM ISSUE REFLECTED IN „BISERICA ŞI ŞCOALA” MAGAZINE (END OF 19TH CENTURY – BEGINING OF 20TH CENTURY)
The issue of alcoholism brings into discussion a series of themes that one must unveil, themes that, theoretically, sends our debate on an interdisciplinary field. We are guided towards spheres like: medicine, justice throughout delinquency, sociability, morality and religion.
By the end of the 19th century, “Biserica şi Şcoala” fought against alcoholism too by the raised issues and by presenting the effects of alcohol upon human body. We can also read in it about health problems, morality and religious themes but also about the connection between alcoholism, health and fighting strengh of the army.
- Corneliu CRĂCIUN, COMITETUL DEMOCRAT EVREIESC (BIHOR – ORADEA) – ÎNTRE PROMISIUNEA LOIALITĂŢII ŞI EŞUAREA ÎN TRĂDARE
LE COMITÉ DÉMOCRATE JUIF (BIHOR, ORADEA) – ENTRE LA PROMESSE DE LA LOYAUTÉ ET LA DÉRIVE EN TRAHISON
Le C. D. J. (C. D. E.) fut une des formes par lesquelles le Parti Communiste de Roumanie se proposa de contrôler et orienter, a son propre intéret, la population juive du pays. Au temps de son existence (1945 – 1953), le C. D. E. n’a pas réussi a dominer toute la population juive; historiquement, la victoire fut remportée par l’autre orientation: le sionisme. Juste apres la fin de la guerre, le C. D. E. s’impliqua, d’une maniere positive, dans le soutien de la population juive, terriblement affectée par l’application des lois nazies et par la tragédie de la déportation et l’extermination (le probleme des fortunes des juifs morts en déportation, l’assistance accordée aux pauvres, des enfants des régions affamées, des anciens membres des détachements de travail forcé, la libération des prisonniers des camps de l’Union Soviétique, la reprofessionnalisation). Apres, le C. D. E. devint l’instrument de la politique du Parti Communiste de Roumanie, agissant, a sa commande, contre leurs propres coreligionnaires sionistes. A part des quelques aspects positives, le C. D. E. acheva son parcours sous la marque de la culpabilité envers ceux en face des quels il s’engagea de les représenter.
- Constantin MĂLINAŞ, INVENTARE DE CARTE ROMÂNEASCĂ VECHE DIN PROTOPOPIATUL BEIUŞULUI LA 1942
INVENTAIRES DES VIEUX LIVRES ECCLÉSIASTIQUES ROUMAINES DANS LE VICARIAT DE BEIUŞ, BIHOR, ROUMANIE, 1942
L’auteur a truové les réponses des eglises du Vicariat orthodoxe roumain de Beiuş, par lesquelles les pretres ont decri les vieux livres de cult, qui se trouvent et s’employent dans l’eglise locale, comme témoignage de l’unité de cult , l’unité culturelle et l’unité de la langue roumaine, le long des siecles. On voit ainci 228 exemplaires des livres liturgiques, éditées entre 1643 – 1866, qui se trouvaient en 28 villages du départament de Beiuş, en 1942.
- Gabriel MOISA, TRANSILVANIA IN WESTERN HISTORIOGRAPHY: 1965-1989. SOME CONSIDERATIONS
The considerations related to the themes and the epochs approached by the western historiographies are very interesting. Each has its own aspects and accents related to Transilvania. The reasons depend on the affinities and the researcher training, but also on the special interest of some states related through history to Transilvanian state, like Hungarian and German historiographies. Excepting Hungarian historiography that, in fact, does not belong to western research but must be mention because of objective reasons, the majority of studies regarding the Romanians are in English space. This fact can be explained by the special material resources from there and by some spirits who knew how to come near Transilvanian and Romanians history and to devote themselves to Romanian problems. If we take into account only the last part of the XX century, we will have to mention, for their approaching and encouragement of Romanians, historians like Hugh Seton-Watson, Henry L. Roberts, Sherman D. Spector, Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, William O. Oldson, Barbara Jelavich, Charles Jelavich, Eric D. Tapee or Stephen Fischer-Galati. They created a real institutional system, institutions, and magazines, which ensure even today the continuity of the Romanian history’s research.
- Lucia CORNEA, DATE REFERITOARE LA ISTORICUL CASEI VULCAN DIN ORADEA
QUELQUES DONNÉES CONCERNANT L’HISTOIRE DE LA « MAISON VULCAN » D’ORADEA
L’ouvrage est consacré au bâtiment qui abrite aujourd’hui le Musée Iosif Vulcan d’Oradea. Situé 16, Rue Iosif Vulcan, le bâtiment est classé monument mémorial. Entre 1897 et 1907, cette maison a été habitée par Iosif Vulcan, journaliste et écrivain, membre de l’Académie Roumaine, et a abrité la rédaction de la revue de celui-ci, Familia [La famille], jusqu’en 1906.
L’adresse de cet immeuble était 14/296b, Rue de la Bénédiction a l’époque.
L’ouvrage se propose d’apporter quelques précisions concernant l’histoire et le régime juridique du bâtiment. Il s’appuie sur l’étude de l’extrait du Livre foncier et du plan cadastral juridique de l’immeuble, d’anciens plans de la ville, sur l’étude de documents d’archives dont ceux du Musée du Pays des Criş, l’institution coordonatrice du Musée Iosif Vulcan, de la presse locale de l’époque.
Au fil des années, la rue ou est située la Maison Vulcan a changé de nom plusieurs fois: de Rue de la Bénédiction en Rue Rimanoczi Kalman et ensuite Rue Iosif Vulcan.
Iosif Vulcan a acheté la maison et le terrain sur lequel elle est construite de David Busch, ingénieur-en-chef de la ville.
Les époux Vulcan ont donc acheté pour 20.000 florins une partie du terrain qui appartenait a la famille Busch et «la maison du numéro 296, existant déja», propriété enregistrée au nom de Iosif Vulcan et de son épouse, Aurélia Popovici, le 21 septembre 1897. Conformément au plan cadastral juridique de 1887, ce terrain a le numéro topographique 634/1, l’immeuble entier étant inscrit dans le Livre Foncier au numéro 2772 avec l’intitulé «terrain intra-muros a Oradea Olosig».
Apres la mort de Iosif Vulcan (1907), tout l’immeuble a été enregistré comme propriété d’Aurelia Vulcan.
En avril 1918, Aurelia Vulcan a vendu l’immeuble, qui a appartenu, par la suite, a plusieurs propriétaires successifs. Enfin, le 15 mai 1964, les propriétaires ont fait don de l’immeuble a l’Etat roumain. Une institution culturelle y a été créée afin de conserver la mémoire de Iosif Vulcan – Le Musée Iosif Vulcan.
Dans la Section C du feuillet foncier, qui fait mention des différentes charges qui grevent le bien, sont indiquées l’identité du propriétaire et la levée d’hypotheque qui grevait l’immeuble a différentes époques. Cet ouvrage ne mentionne que les charges qui ont grevé l’immeuble pendant la vie de Iosif Vulcan et de son épouse, Aurelia Vulcan, ces renseignements présentant un intéret certain.
- Blaga MIHOC, BĂTRÂNUL NAŢIEI
NATION’S OLD FATHER
Now, when we celebrate 100 from the death of the great journalist Iosif Vulcan (1841-1907-2007), we think without any doubt, that his talent, activism and journalism policy served in the first place to first type of “intelighenţia”, and less to the second. Face to the second type he was in a continuous contradiction, as the founder of Romanian Literature Criticism, Titu Maiorescu stetted.