Crisia 2012, XLII
1. George Tomegea, On Research Problems of Biritual Cemeteries from Transylvania (7th-9th Century)
On Research Problems of Biritual Cemeteries from Transylvania (7th-9th Century)
Problems related to this type of cemeteries are complex and lie firstly on the fact that the shallowness/small depth wherethe cremation graves were located led to their partial or total demise mainly due to agricultura labors. Moreover, a large number of them have not been thoroughly archaeologically researched due to various reasons. Another problem is their not being published or their superficial mentioning. We will proceed by summarising a short history of research made on this type of burial sites.
2. Ioan F. Pop, Poietica demersului cognitiv augustinian
Augustinian Poetics Cognitive Process
An important dimension of philosophy and Augustinian theology is given by their intrinsic literaritatea. In their opening for insight, and inspiration to subjectivity. Of their deep affection. All under acute register of revelation. This opening is because the work was clearly marked by Virgil’s poetry, the poet and the Platonic writings. As attraction is neglected ambroziene hymns, which have troubled so much soul. His philosophy is a philosophy of the ego, of interiority. His concern is centered on the size of his inner man, the soul relief. Appearance due to some extent and manner in which Plotinus himself alluded to the nature of the soul. He believed that, no matter how down the soul cannot reach absolute non-being. In so much, he remains the quintessence of human evil even if it meets with non-being. Proximal to the sacred heart is the gateway, which remains open regardless of falls and fall-being.
3. Ioan Crişan, Stadiul cercetărilor arheologice în cimitirul satului medieval Rădvani
The Stage of Archaeological Investigations in the Medieval Village Rădvani Cemetery
The Medieval village Rădvani appears in documents beginning with 1214 until the 17th century when it was abandoned. The archaeological site, near the forest with the same name outside Cefa (Bihor County), has an area of 22.31 hectares.
Between 1990 and 1999 archaeologists researched the village fireplace and in 2000 the village cemetery, located in the sector A of the site. Until 2011 the excavations revealed the foundations of a church and the edges of the cemetery in all four of the cardinal points. 447 tombs with a number of 453 individuals have been identified. The funeral rituals began in the 11th century and continued until the 17th century. We have identified three stages in the evolution of this cemetery between these chronological reference points:
Stage 1, with 193 tombs and 196 individuals, between the 11th and 12th century.
Stage 2, with 243 tombs and 246 individuals, around a church, that can be included between the 13th and 17th century.
Stage 3, with 10 tombs and 10 individuals, all around the church, corresponding to the 13th and 17th century.
There was only one modern tomb dated between the 18th and 19th century that could bring up the discussion around a fourth stage.
4. Gizella Nemeth, Adriano Papo, Conflittualità Ungaro-Veneta all’epoca di Mattia Corvino
Hungarian-Venetian Struggle During the Reign of Matthias Corvinus
This study deals with the political relations between Matthias Corvinus and the Republic of Venice, with particular regard to Dalmatia and the eastern border of Italy. The main target of Venetian politics towards King Matthias was domination of Dalmatia and supremacy in the Adriatic, ancient cause of struggle between Venice and the Hungarian kings since the time of King Coloman ‘the Learned’ (1095-1116). Venice and Hungary were on the point of war after the conquest of Senj by the Hungarian troops of Balázs Magyar Podmaniczky. The Republic protested to the Roman Curia quickly, accused King Matthias of pushing the Frangipanes into the Ottomans’ hands and took the part of the earl of Senj. The tension between Venice and Hungary became sharper in 1480 because of a struggle about the sovereignty on the Isle of Veglia, feud of John Frangipane, who was favoured by the Venetians. At the end, the contested island remained to the Republic; however, the crisis of Veglia marked the end of one of the oldest patrimonial principalities of the region. After the crisis of Veglia, Venice began again to suspect the king of Hungary of aiming at the Austrian domains in north-western Italy (Trieste and Pordenone); such fear made Venice draw to the emperor, who was preferred by the Republic as neighbour. In this manner, Venice, being afraid of the expansionist politics of Matthias Corvinus in the High Adriatic, favoured the settling of the Habsburgs in this area.
5. Călin Ghemiş, Constantin Iosif Zgardan, Asediul cetăţii Oradea (1692) în medalistica barocă
The Siege of Oradea Fortress (1692) in Baroque Medals
On the reviriment of Habsburg Empire encouraged by the victory upon turks at Vienna, in the time span between october 1691 and june 1692, Oradea is conquered by the imperial troops leaded by the general Donath Heissler. For celebrating this victory Leopold the I st, had issued three medals of different types made in bronze, silver, tin and gold. The medals are described and discussed as numismatic documents regarding the history of Oradea, being in this way the first baroque monuments which cellebrate the new town of the Habsburg Empire,on the other hand these medals marks the re-born of this important city of Partium.
6. Ciprian-Doru Rigman, Formaţia intelectuală a protopopilor greco-catolici din episcopia Gherla la mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea
Intellectual Formation of Greek-Catholic Archdeacons in Gherla Diocese in the Middle of the XIXth Century
The archdeacons represent the so called middle-clergy, an intermediary hierarchical level between the central institution – the diocese – and the local institution – the parish – fulfilling a very important role in the administration of the large diocese and facilitating the flow of information from center to the periphery and from periphery towards the center. This paper presents the level of education and the cultural and intellectual pursuits of the archdeacons in the Gherla Diocese in the middle of the XIXth century, starting from an accepted ideal model and analyzing, based on archive documentation, how this ideal is reflected in reality. The paper presents the educational levels that archdeacons have to graduate, the prestigious institutions they study in the period, their cultural pursuits reflected in translation of valuable religious and school books, subscriptions to major Romanian newspapers in Transylvania, but also articles and contributions they submit. The paper brings to light the will of an archdeacon which contains the inventory of his library that is to be donated to the dioceses after his death, an additional proof of their intellectual pursuits in the period. The analysis of the intellectual formation of archdeacons reveals that their level of education is higher than the average education of priests, and it represents a condition to enter the archdeacon status, but it is also one step towards higher ecclesiastic positions.
7. Szabó József, Contribuţii privind istoria regularizării apelor pe Valea Ierului în secolul XIX
Contributions Regarding to History of Water Level Regulation in Ierul Valley in ihe Nineteenth Century
The issue of regulating water levels in Ierul Valley (hung. Érmellék) has already appeared in 1639, the starting moment of strengthening Săcueni fortress to ensure a constant flow of water for ditches of the fortress. In 1661 a flood still saves the same fortress from the invading Turks from Oradea. In later centuries there were frequent flooding problems for area residents, ie. that after the great floods of 1746, 1750, 1774, 1777, 1782, 1784, 1788, 1816, 1830, 1855, 1880-1882 years. The idea of regulating water levels of Ierul Valley – said “no mud, no brook” – has become a pressing necessity in the eyes of area residents. We have information about some isolated steps made by the county and feudal domains, which then were coordinated and carried out in large adjustments in the Criş- Mureş-Tisza area. Ierul Valley was without considerable importance in the nineteenth century hydrological thinking. Regulating water levels of Crişuri-Barcău Area was the biggest priority on county and country decision levels. Although the first association to regulate water levels in Bihor county was established by area residents even in the Ierul Valley already in 1842, and idea of Tisza-Ierul-Crişuri channel circulated throughout the nineteenth century (with the aim of regulating floods of Tisa by dividing them), however the most effective water level regulation throughout the Ierul Valley from Bihor county was taken in the early 1880s. Article aims to describe these approaches based on data already available.
8. Florina Ciure, Lucia Cornea, Relaţiile culturale româno-italiene reflectate în paginile revistei „Familia”, Seria I (1865-1906)
Romanian-Italian Cultural Relations Reflected in the “Familia”Magazine, Series I (1865-1906)
Familia magazine, founded in Pest in 1865 by Iosif Vulcan, had an important role in the promotion of Romanian culture. The first series, which had an uninterrupted continuity until the end of 1906, under the leadership of Iosif Vulcan, appeared in Pest between 1865 to 1880, then in Oradea, contains a lot of information on which can be reconstructed the Romanian-Italian cultural relations. In its pages were noted the books published, the successes of Romanian artists on Italian stages, the common cultural activities of Romanian and Italian spaces, were published travel notes, stories, poems, translations of the works of well-known writers, were illustrated and described the Italian cities or the great personalities of Italian people. Serving to bring to the attention of readers the outstanding cultural events, but also their artisans, Familia magazine shows us the society of those times, reflecting also a fervent and fertile cultural activity on both countries.
9. Cipriana Sucilă-Pahoni, O privire critică asupra legii penitenciarelor de la 1 februarie 1874
A Critical Look Over the Prisons Law From 1874
The article highlights the main points of a more detailed analysis of the the penitentiary legislation, specifically “The 1874 Law”, also known as the The Penitenciary Regime Law, drafted by the Frenchman “Ferdinand Perrieres Dodun” by the middle of the nineteenth century, for the Romanian Principates. This law was drafted due to the need of solving some pressing problems concerning the situation of the inmates and to the fact that the very existence of the prisons had been jeopardized. Those problems were looking to be solved by establishing the previous regulations of that law: either by those after the Organic Regulation approval or by those promulgated during the reigns of Grigore Al. Ghica (Moldova) and Barbu Ştirbei (Romanian Country). However, the regulation’s resolutions remained only on paper, without enforcement. Article does not nothing else but to pursue in what extent this “lawful” had improved the penitentiary system.
10. M. Marcella Ferraccioli, Gianfranco Giraudo, Venezia dalla Repubblica al Regno Un itinerario nella Petite histoire
Venice from the Republic to the Kingdom an Itinerary in the Petite Histoire
This article investigates the history of Venetian People since 1797 up to the present days. The Authors try to highlight some turning points in the history of the City: the passive attitude towards the fall of the Serenissima Republic, the heroic year of the Venetian Revolution, the disenchantment of 1861, and the farce of the plebiscite in 1866. During the last 150 years the history the republican and democratic ideals of Venice, which are the same of the Italian Risorgimento, were betrayed.
11. Cornelia Romînaşu, Principalele operaţiuni financiar-bancare ale băncii “Râureana” din Copalnic-Mănăştur (1899-1917)
The Main Financial and Banking Operations of the Bank “Râureana” in Copalnic-Mănăştur (1899-1917)
The main financial and banking operations made by the Bank Râureana from Copalnic-Mănăştur were as follows: receiving of deposits to fruition, lending of credits on bills granting of credits on bills of exchange with mortgage cover, granting of loans on mortgage, granting of credits on personal bonds or the “peasant credit”, granting of loans on bills and other “securities”, commission businesses and buying fee bills, buying, leasing and selling of agricultural lands, forests and other chattels.
The deposits to fruition were the main financial and banking operation that fueled the bank “Râureana”. The main depositors of the banking institute were the Romanian intellectuals and the wealthy peasants. Besides the individuals, a number of cultural societies, rural communities, schools, libraries, foundations, banks and representatives of the church also have deposited.
12. Mihai Georgiţă, Grindină şi superstiţie (cazul din Suiug-1928)
Hail and Superstitions – the Case from Suiug
In this study we want to reveal a popular superstition born to the confluence of the natural disaster aroused by hail and the deadly accident caused by a farming car. The harversts of the villages from Suiug have been affected by hail for two years. The villagers started a real revolt against the authorities and the family of an ihabitant from Popeşti, who died on an accident at work with a farming car, on the reason that the authorities agreed with the transportation of the deceased through their locality, what shold bring again the hail and destroy their crops.
13. Doina-Gabriela Ananie, Împărţirea administrativă şi structura etnică a judeţului Bihor din 1943
The administrative Rearrangement and the Ethnic Structure of Bihor County from 1943
After the Vienna Arbitration, the northern part of Bihor County, including the towns of Oradea, Salonta and a hundred and eighty three villages, was lost in favour of Hungary. One hundred and forty three villages and the town of Beiuş remained in the Romanian territory. Due to this fact, a new administrative rearrangement was necessary, in order to reorganize the remaining area. The authorities chose for a more practical model, a simplified one, according to the realities of war. Also the dynamic of the population changed, many Hungarians leaving for the occupied territory, while a lot of Romanians took refuge in the part of Bihor county remained unoccupied. The seven districts formed in 1942 lost more than half of the villages they had in the interwar period, and a large number of inhabitants. Bihor County will be reunited after the liberation of north-western Transylvania in october 1944 and will regain its old borders, those before august 1940.
14. Ion Zainea, Excluderi din Partidul Muncitoresc român în anul 1952. Cazul Comitetului Raional Oradea
Exclusions From The Romanian Labour Party In The Year 1952 The Case Of Oradea Raional Committee
The purging campaign from the year 1952, unfolded under the mark of offensive against the kulaks. According to the directions of the CC of RLP, within the base organizations it was handled strengthening of party life and the discovery/ unmasking and removal of “spiteful, exploiting, kulak elements”. The party organizations within Oradea regional committee proceeded also to the exclusion of those who have harmed the party`s activity. The reasons of the exclusions were numerous and various: from losing the party member card, fee non-payment, non-participation in organization`s gatherings or in the election of party`s ruling body, deviation from the party`s line or the proletarian line; from connections with the kulaks, sabotage of the collecting plan, spiteful attitude towards GAC, party or government or undermining the base organization, unfulfilling the party tasks, a trendy accusation being that of “sneaking in the party in order to hide the past” (kulak, legionary, horthyst gendarme or member of any subversive organization), but also to undermine it from the interior.
15. Cristina Puşcaş, Înfometare – un mijloc de exterminare lentă a deţinuţilor politici din Penitenciarul Oradea Mare (1947-1977)
Starvation – a Means of Slow Extermination of the Political Prisoners in the Prison of Great Oradea (1947-1977)
The Prison from Oradea is part of the Romanian Gulag “typology”, created by the new regime installed at power after the World War II. The incommunicado system in Romania is meant not only to punish the “political opponents”, but also rather to transform them into obedient citizens of the new social order. The inhuman detention conditions provided by the Prison from Great Oradea were not anything special to the extermination regime applied to the officials imprisoned in Sighet, the “re-educated” students in Piteşti or the pupils from Gherla. Hunger, cold and isolation, which marked the whole life spent within the walls of the Prison of Oradea, have left deep scars in the psyche, but also in the physical condition of the thousands of prisoners who passed through. The diet, poor hygiene conditions, lack of medical care, humiliation, isolation, all these made the mine of Oradea to live, in the memories of those who have stepped in, as a terrible experience.
16. Adriana Ruge, Daciana Erzse, The Orthodox Church in Săcuieni
The Orthodox Church in Săcuieni
In 1939 the Romanian Orthodox in Săcuieni, Bihor County, commenced the building works on the first Orthodox Church in town. The church designer was Gheorghe Molnar, an architect born in Oradea who, in the same year, 1939, immigrated to Australia where he worked as an architect, professor and cartoonist. Engineer Pintér Ştefan was the contractor; he was also born in Oradea and very active within the urban environment of Oradea in the interwar period.
The place of worship was built in stages. The works started in 1939 yet they were interrupted in 1940 because of the Second World War, being resumed only in the late 1970s. Inside, the current mural painting was made between 1987 and 1989 by the painter Constantin Savin. The iconostasis dates back from the years 1980-1982 and was made by the priest Argatu Alexandru from Suceava County.
The church has a triconch plan and consists of the altar apse, nave with a tower and side aisles and a narthex developed in length. The central tower built on pendentives together with the four blind towers placed in the corners of the nave and the bell tower on the west facade represent, in elevation, an extremely expressive ensemble.
Outside, the building composition is achieved by the play of volumes with varied heights. The facades have no decorations, being rhythmed only by the alternation between masonry and the gap between windows.
17. Gabriel Moisa, Utilisation des Institution Museale comme des Instruments de L’education Ideologique a la Jeunesse Dans Les Premieres Annees de la Ceausescu Regime
Using Museum Institution as Ideological Tools in Early Youth to the Education of the Ceausescu Regime
Romanian communists utilized a variety of propagandistic means. The museums were included in this scenario letting visible marks that can be traced till nowadays in the historical expositions. One of the most important objectives of the Romanian history museums, in a certain period of the communist regime was to educate the young Romanians in such manner that they would become “trustful citizens” of the socialist Romania. The young were the main target of this propaganda. Unfortunately, the museums, seen as institutions were massively involved in this propaganda.
The Romanian museums were integrated in a well articulated propagandistic program in such manner that they should contribute to the proper education of the young generation. But for this was needed a solid collaboration between museums and schools. Such is the case of the last ten to fifteen years of the communist regime. The museums were expected to come with a rich offer to the students and the schools were supposed to develop schools programs connected with the museums. Soon after the results appeared, the museums developed a rich activity with ideological characteristics.
18. Camelia Burghele, Border Identity: Maramureşul istoric, de-o parte şi de alta a Tisei
Border Identity: Historical Maramures, On Both Tisa Banks
The mechanisms of identity construction for the Romanian communities on the right Tisa (Ukraine) villages as related to the local Ukrainian majority have been under our attention the last years. The Transcarpathian Maramures Romanians topic required several field trips – finalized with ethnological observations onto the cultural environment which exists there (clearly reflected into obvious language modifications or ancient customs and spiritual models but also into guarding the Romanian identity patterns – common to those of the Romanians on the other Tisa bank, the Romanian Maramures).
In the context of globalization and Europeanization, or more precisely in the context of forming the national and ethnical state union, conventionally called The European Union, certain necessary distinctions are made between the terms boundary and frontier. The boundary is a paradoxical concept: it separates and unifies at the same time, leading towards a high degree of permeability of the limits. One of the most important elements in outlining a identity related attitude is territoriality. Minority anthropology speaks of border – identity as if it were a special kind of identity built once the enclave is bound to the motherland, the two being only separated by a administrative border: this being the case of the Transcarpathia Romanians. Tisa is seen as a concrete, tangible border which separates the two macro-political territories: Romania on the left and Ukraine on the right side of Tisa. On the other side, Romanians here see the villages as if they belonged to a territorial unity which cannot be destroyed – that of the historical Maramures. Their belonging to a common space which is not only physical and geographical but also cultural and ethnical is very obvious: the Romanians on the right hand bank of Tisa are perfectly aware of their Romanian heritage, which mainly manifests on a linguistic level but also on a common tradition level with the Romanians on the left hand bank of Tisa.
There has been research developed on several levels on the field study within the right Tisa bank (Transcarpathian Ukraine) in order to define group identity and border identity: a language level (the extent to which Romanian is used), a religious level (guarding the inherited religion or adhesion to neo-Protestantism), an economic level (attitude towards labor and living conditions), a mythical-magical-ritual level (guarding certain magical practices), social networking (especially marriages) and everyday life.
19. Florin Sfrengeu, Arheologul şi profesorul Sever Dumitraşcu la 75 de ani. Aspecte privind activitatea ştiinţifică.
Archaeologist and Professor Sever Dumitraşcu at the Age of 75. Aspects on His Scientific Activity
We briefly bring forward a part of the scientific activity of the archaeologist Sever Dumitraşcu, a great personality of the Romanian historiography and archeology. He performed archaeological researches in 25 sites and published a large number of books, studies and articles, many of them field exploration findings, original, with great impact in the European scientific world. The Professor of Oradea scientific research concentrated on: Dacians’ fortresses and settlements in the classical era of the Western Romania, Roman epoch free Dacians’ territory, rural settlements in the first millennium of the Christian era, inter-ethnic relations in the western part of the Apuseni Mountains, Romanian old age, to which you can add the occasional researches on various prehistoric periods (Neo- Eneolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age).