STUDII / STUDIES
1. KATÓCZ Zoltán
Noi materiale arheologice aparținând culturii Baden descoperite în Câmpia Nirului
NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS BELONGING TO THE BADEN CULTURE DISCOVERED IN THE NIR PLAIN
The excavations and surface research carried out in the sandy areas of the Nir Plain have uncovered several sites and settlements dated to the end of the Copper Age. The first ceramic fragments of the Baden culture in this region were discovered right in the town of Valea lui Mihai by Roska Márton in collaboration with Andrássy Ernő and published in 1932. More important research, concerning the settlements and material culture of the communities in the Nir Plain from the end of the Copper Age took place between the 70s and the 80s. But no new Baden ceramic materials from this micro-region have been discovered and published since then. After several years of surface research at Valea lui Mihai, Torockay László Károly who was extremely passionate about archaeology, collected a significant amount of Baden pottery fragments at the Dieneș site. This article presents the archaeological discoveries found in the Toroczkai collection. After many years, this archaeological data provides new knowledge on the habitat and the spread of the culture in this region. The ceramic material has a wide range of vessel types, and from a quantitative point of view, it is dominated by semi-coarse and fine pottery. From a chronological point of view, the collected ceramic materials belong to III and VIa phase of the Baden culture. Although this pottery collection does not have a clear archaeological context, we still believed it was important to present it for the purpose of introducing a new site in the archaeological repertoire of Bihor County and to provide new typological-chronological data on the Baden culture.
Keywords: Baden culture, end of the Copper Age, late Eneolithic, Valea lui Mihai, pottery
articol complet / full article
2. Alexandra GĂVAN, Tobias KIENLIN, Astrid RÖPKE, Nadine NOLDE, Tanja ZERL, Mirijam ZICKEL, Marian-Adrian LIE, Gruia FAZECAȘ, Florin GOGÂLTAN
LIVING TOGETHER OR APART? UNRAVELLING THE DEVELOPMENT, INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF A COMPLEX BRONZE AGE TELL SETTLEMENT AT TOBOLIU, WESTERN ROMANIA
In this paper we present a new research project dedicated to the interdisciplinary investigation of the complex Bronze Age site in Toboliu (Bihor County, Romania). Using a multidisciplinary approach, the project aims to reveal the interplay of factors that contributed to the development and subsequent decline of this site. To this end, the planned investigations feature both archaeological fieldwork and comprehensive scientific analyses; the main disciplines involved here are geoarchaeology, archaeozoology, arcaheobotany and molecular archaeology. Hence, this project contains two closely integrated parts (archaeology and natural sciences), which in cooperation will hopefully provide a broad spectrum of new information about a Bronze Age tell in terms of the chronological and spatial development of the entire site structure, as well as subsistence practices and social and economic developments.
Keywords: Middle Bronze Age; Multidisciplinarity; Tell settlement; Landscape archeology
articol complet / full article
3. Gruia FAZECAȘ
PREHISTORIC METAL DISCOVERIES FROM THE KARST OF THE PĂDUREA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS, BIHOR COUNTY
In the spring of 2020, a local from Gălășeni (com. Măgești, Bihor county) discovered several copper and bronze artifacts with the help of the metal detector. It is about a flat copper axe belonging to the Early Bronze Age and several pieces that probably belonged to a Arpășel type bronze hoard belonging to Late Bronze Age.
Keywords: Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, flat axe, bronze hoard
articol complet / full article
4. Corina TOMA
Notă asupra fibulei dacice descoperite în zona orașului Aleșd (jud. Bihor)
NOTE ON THE DACIAN BROOCH DISCOVERED IN THE AREA OF ALEȘD CITY (BIHOR COUNTY)
The article presents the Dacian brooch discovered by two metal-detector enthusiasts in a forest near the city of Aleșd (Bihor County) in the February 2019. According to the typological classifications of the silver jewellery from pre-Roman Dacia, the late Latène scheme brooch belongs to the category of filiform or bow-rod brooches (Horedt type A2a; Rustoiu type 7a1; Spânu type 2.1.1), that have a wide spread, being specific to the intra-Carpathian area. The association with brooches with knobs and those with rhombic plate on the bow places them in the first two typo-chronological groups established by Kurt Horedt. Absolute chronology remains an open problem, as the filiform or bow-rod brooches were dated to the 150/125-30/25 BC (i.e. the first two groups of the tripartite timeframes proposed by Kurt Horedt and Aurel Rustoiu), or in the years 75-25 BC/25 BC-25 AD (depending on the context, in one of the two groups of the typo-chronological scheme proposed by Daniel Spânu).
Keywords: Aleșd (Bihor County), Dacian silver jewellery, late Latène type brooches, metal detection
articol complet / full article
5. Sorin BULZAN
Noi cercetări arheologice de teren din teritoriul comunei Batăr, județul Bihor
NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AT BATĂR, BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA
In recent years at Batăr commune was identified the old known archaeological site from Batăr, a monastery and a castle and others new discoveries which was made by field survey: one roman period settlement from barbaricum, and three others settlements from medieval period.
Keywords: archaeology, Bihor County, Batăr, discoveries, antiquity, middle Ages
articol complet / full article
6. Laura ARDELEAN, Doru MARTA
Váradi Péter – un umanist uitat (I. Origini și educație)
VÁRADI PÉTER – A FORGOTTEN HUMANIST (I. EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION)
Oradea in the 15th century, without exaggeration, became the most important eastern center of the Hungarian Kingdom, which should not be surprising considering the early and constant contacts with Occidental, especially with the Italian space, resulting in an atmosphere of cultural effervescence. This is the place that formed the humanist Váradi Péter, noticed at an early age by Bishop Ioan Vitéz de Zredna – a true patron of humanism of the fifteenth century – who will take him under his protective wing and will send him to study at the prestigious University of Bologna, after which he will be concerned with his initiation into political life, where he will reach important positions as secretary and royal chancellor and later archbishop of Kalocsa. This paper is the first in a series concerning Váradi Péter’s life covering his early life and education.
Keywords: Oradea, fifteenth century, humanism, Bishop Ioan Vitéz de Zredna, Bologna
articol complet / full article
7. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO
Le mire di Ludovico Gritti alla sacra corona d’Ungheria
LUDOVICO GRITTI’S STRIVING FOR THE HOLY CROWN OF HUNGARY
Ludovico Gritti (about 1480–1534) was the natural son of the Venetian doge Andrea Gritti; he was born in Constantinople; his mother was most likely a concubine of his father. He spent his early career at the Bosphorus as a merchant and a banker: quickly, he distinguished himself for the very good profits he made out of his business activity, so that he became one of the richest and most important men at Constantinople. By virtue of both his friendship with Grand Vizier Pasha İbrahim and the favour of Sultan Suleiman I, Gritti entered politics and started ascending quickly at the Hungarian court of King John Szapolyai. The son of the doge was granted the title of Royal Councillor and High Treasurer as well as the dignity of Bishop of Eger (1529). One year later, he was appointed Governor of Hungary and comes of Maramureș/Máramaros as well; in 1532 Gritti became the military leader (Chief Captain) of the Hungarian army. Hence, in 1532 Gritti was at the height of his political and economic power: he combined many important dignities and his influence on the political resolutions of the Sublime Porte was considerable, and his wealth was immense as well. Just in this period it was rumoured that he was converted to Islam in order to enter the group of the Ottoman pashas. Later on, it was also rumoured that the doge–son would attempt to take the Saint Stephen’s Crown for himself. The Authors deny all the rumours about Gritti’s ambitious political projects, by ensuring that Gritti entered politics in order to increase his economic profits, and that, during his political career, he was manoeuvred by the Sultan, who used his mediation to control John Szapolyai and his foreign policy.
Keywords: Ludovico (Alvise) Gritti, İbrahim Pasha, Suleiman I, John Szapolyai, Gritti’s apostasy, the Holy Crown of Hungary
8. Florina CIURE
Cucerirea Oradiei de către habsburgi în izvoare italiene. Operațiunilemilitare din anul 1692
THE CONQUEST OF ORADEA BY THE HABSBURGS IN ITALIAN SOURCES. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN 1692
This article presents a new research about the conquest of Oradea contained in Il Corriere ordinario, the oldest newspaper published in Italian language on Habsburg territory. These reports, included in 9th volume of Avvisi italiani, ordinarii e straordinarii, present in detail the actions of Imperial armies against the Ottomans in Oradea, during 1692. They were published in Italian language in Vienna by Johann van Ghelen. By publishing these documents, the Habsbourgs intended to popularise the successes of the Imperial armies, that after the failed siege of Vienna (1683), entered in possesion of the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary holded by the Ottomans. These documents provide new evidence about a tumultuos period in the history of Oradea. They attest, however, the level of knowledge of the realities of this part of Europe in the Habsburg Empire.
Keywords: Oradea, Vienna, Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, 1692
9. Sorin ȘIPOȘ, Cosmin PATCA
HISTORICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL EVOLUTION OF CUZAP. PLEAD FOR A LOCAL HISTORY
The present work is part of a project, which we started in 2010, to promote local history, more precisely the settlements of the Bistra Valley, to which most of the collaborators are sentimentally and professionally linked. We started from the premise that, in order to promote the settlements of the Bistra Valley, the inhabitants needed to know as much information as possible about local history, from the so-called memory of places. A good knowledge of the history, traditions, people and customs of the area is a serious prerequisite for their preservation and promotion and a chance for our descendants to understand local history. I believe that, in order to have a chance in this respect, we need to generate awareness among the rural elite, the inhabitants, to make them aware of their role in preserving and promoting local tradition and history. What we have achieved over the years with the involvement of younger colleagues, collaborators from home and abroad, the local elite and the inhabitants of Cuzap village and the villages in the area are proof that we are on the right track2.
Keywords: Cuzap village, Bistra Valley, Bihor County, historical evolution, geographical evolution
10. Augustin MUREȘAN
Stema Episcopiei Aradului reprezentată color pe clădirea sediului Eparhiei
COAT OF ARMS OF THE BISHOPRIC OF ARAD REPRESENTED IN COLORS ON THE BUILDING OF THE EPARCHY HEADQUARTERS
The coat of arms has the following appearance: in an oval shield with a sharp lower edge on blue, a silver religious edifice with two high towers and a gate, seen from the front. In the lower part of the building was a black raven with a gold ring in its beak. The shield stamped by the miter flanked by a crutch – on the right, the cross – in the cross senestra is supported by two faced lions sitting on arabesques, all gold. From the center of the right and left flank hangs a row of black rosaries ending in a cross of the same color.
Keywords: The Bishopric of Arad, coat of arms, religious edifice, shield, black raven
11. Marta CORDEA
O privire de ansamblu asupra luptei românilor din Dieta de la Pesta (1848-1849) pentru câștigarea drepturilor
AN OVERVIEW OF THE STRUGGLE OF ROMANIANS IN THE PEST DIET (1848-1849) TO WIN NATIONAL RIGHTS
One of the gains of the “spring of freedom” was that the Romanians living on the lands of the Habsburg Empire were able to send deputies to the first Hungarian Diet with Romanian national representation in Pest (July 2, 1848 – August 11, 1849). We can say that the Romanian deputies apprenticed for the future Diets in which they represented their voters, be they the future Hungarian Diets, or the Romanian Diet of 1863, their total number reaching the Diet from 1848-1849, to 28 in the two years, by successive elections. We can consider the Romanian intellectuals who represented the social and national interests of Romanians from Banat, Crişana, Maramures, Partium and Transylvania in the Diet of Pest, participants in the struggle for national affirmation, carried on during the periods to which we refer. Some of the deputies had a filo Hungarian attitude, not being aware that this real trap, put by the Hungarian rulers, could have annihilated them as a nation, others fought with all means for the Romanian national rights, remaining good patriots to the end. Our article presents an overview of the activity of Romanian deputies in this Diet.
Keywords: Diet of Pest, Romanian deputies, 1848 – 1849, national rights, debates
12. Răzvan-Mihai NEAGU
Considerații privind viața și activitatea unui luptător național mai puțin cunoscut, Emil Cormoș Alexandrescu (1863-1936)
CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE LIFE AND ACTIVITY OF A LESS KNOWN NATIONAL FIGHTER: EMIL CORMOȘ ALEXANDRESCU (1863-1936)
The purpose of this material is to present the main coordinates of the life and activity of a less known personality of the Romanian community in Transylvania, Emil Cormoş Alexandrescu. He was a Greek-Catholic beliver and became one of the leaders of the Romanians in Turda-Arieș County, having the position of president of the Romanian county club. In 1906 and 1910 he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the Hungarian Parliament. Emil Cormoş Alexandrescu became culturally involved in the ASTRA association. He was a great philanthropist helping people in need, as well as the Greek-Catholic church and the confessional schools. Emil Cormoş Alexandrescu contributed to the achievement of the Great Union and participated at the great moment of December 1, 1918 in Alba Iulia. In the interwar period he became a member of the Romanian parliament between 1919 and 1920, but soon retired from public life.
Keywords: Politics, Romanian National Moovement, Transylvania, Greek-Catholic Church, Great Union
13. Lucia MANOLICĂ
Tehnologii și materiale de construcții în arhitectura clădirilor civileși industriale din orașul Oradea la începutul secolului XX
TECHNOLOGIES AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF CIVIL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF ORADEA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
This article describes the technologies and construction materials used in the construction of civil and industrial buildings in Oradea, from the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. Through this study, some of the main factories producing construction materials are highlighted, the most frequently used material being brick. In the content of the presented information, are reported aspects regarding the location of the factories, their owners and shareholders, the materials and products obtained through the technological flow and the labor force and last but not least the representative buildings where they were capitalized. At the same time, the study presents some advertisements and vintage invoices together with photographs showing models of decorative pavements used in achieving finished floors at some emblematic buildings in Oradea.
Keywords: technology, materials, civil and industrial buildings, historical monograph
14. Laurențiu-Ștefan SZEMKOVICS
Decorație conferită unor persoane din Dieceza Oradea-Mare (1922)
DECORATION GIVEN TO SOME PEOPLE FROM THE DIOCESE OF ORADEA-MARE (1922)
In this article, the author presents, using phaleristics, heraldry and sigillography, the Medal “LaborReward for the Church” which was awarded by Decree no. 4,482 of October 26, 1922, to some persons,especially priests, from the Diocese of Oradea-Mare, for the work done in both religious and educationalfields. The graphic reproductions of the decoration come from the collector Emanuel Erena.
Keywords: Diocese of Oradea-Mare, “Labor Reward for the Church” Medal, priests, heraldry, phaleristics
15. Cornelia ROMÎNAȘU, Radu ROMÎNAȘU
Aspecte din activitatea Poliției bihorene în perioada interbelică
ASPECTS OF POLICE ACTIVITY IN BIHOR IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD
The Bihor State Police has started its activity in spring 1919 and has been concerned, throughout the interwar time, correction or annihilation of deviant behaviors, acts of disorder and corruption, trends of anarchy and social chaos, to ensure peace and order, indispensable to a modern society, leading to an awareness of its importance in society. The Police forces from Oradea, Beiuș and Salonta proved to be institutions of the rule of law, which has performed its duties under the laws in force. It tried to serve the democratic ideals of the young Romanian unitary state and to be always in the service of the public interest. Progresses of this institution have demonstrated the validity of the configuration of beneficial mutations in the social life of the Romanians of Bihor.
Keywords: police, law, Bihor county, interwar, society
16. Ioan CIORBA
Un raport privind evoluția Protopopiatului ortodox Ceica în intervalul 1918-1942
A REPORT ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE CEICA ORTHODOX ARCHDIOCESE IN THE PERIOD 1918-1942
After the achievement of the Great Union, the Bihor orthodoxy will finally find the moment to organize itself consistently. After an interruption of over two centuries, the Orthodox Episcopate of Oradea will be re-established. In order to be able to carry out its activity in the best possible conditions, its leaders have decided to divide its territory into several archdioceses (at some point their number will reach 15). This article recovers a report made by the Archpriest Aurel Mușet in 1943. The document captures the evolution of Orthodoxy in the Ceica region since 1918. On this occasion are highlighted both shortcomings in this period (increasing the number of followers of neo-Protestant cults, the impossibility of replacing old wooden churches with new ones), but also the successes (increasing the number of titular priests, increasing the number of parish houses, etc.). The great merit of the document is to underline the birth of a new world at the end of the First World War and with the accomplishment of The Great Romania, but also the shocks imposed on Bihor (and especially on the localities around Ceica) by the unjust Dictate of Vienna. In addition to the confessional information contained in its ranks, those interested can also find important references in terms of social history, economic history, moral etc.
Keywords: orthodox, Ceica, Deanery, Report, Interwar period
17. Francesco RUVOLO
«Siamo partiti tutti d’Italia con i migliori ricordi». Studenti romeni nelle università Italiane, docenti italiani nelle università romene e altro. Contributi dal fondo Arcari
«SIAMO PARTITI TUTTI D’ITALIA CON I MIGLIORI RICORDI». ROMANIAN STUDENTS IN ITALIAN UNIVERSITIES, ITALIAN TEACHERS IN ROMANIAN UNIVERSITIES AND MORE. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE ARCARI FUND
Starting from a quote by Gianfranco Contini on the Romanian language learned when he was a university student in Pavia, the contribution reports unpublished documents on Italian-Romanian relations, mostly from the early twentieth century. In particular are published letters from the Arcari collection of the Civic Library of Tirano. One of 1919, of a diplomat, Secretaire Legation de S. M. le Roi de Roumanie, Barbu Constantinescu, addressed toArcari, about repatriation from Siberia of the Romanian prisoners of war from Transylvania. Two letters (1935) are following on the memories and appreciations on Italy from of a Romanian student, Radu Eugen Silvestru. The contribution ends with a letter from an Italian professor at the University of Cluj, Giandomenico Serra.
Keywords: Paolo Arcari, Italy-Romania prisoners of war, students, Giandomenico Serra
18. Gianfranco GIRAUDO
E’il calcio l’oppio dei popoli? Italia, calcio e giornalismo. 1934/1938 e 2011
IS FOOTBALL THE OPIUM OF THE PEOPLE? ITALY, FOOTBALL AND JOURNALISM 1934/1938 AND 2011
The article analyzes the victory of the Italian national football team in the European Championship. Great prominence was given to the event in the Italian and European press. The great Italian newspapers, all aligned with the government in office, have linked this victory and other more recent ones, with the new course inaugurated by the current government. All the old national stereotypes have reappeared in the European press. The huge party gatherings, inspired by an opium smoke, are above all a support for the spread of Covid.
Keywords: opium, Covid, football, nation, power
19. Antonio FAUR
Principalii responsabili administrativi din Oradea pentru aplicarea soluției finale (aprilie-iunie 1944)
THE MAIN ADMINISTRATIVE CULPRITS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE FINAL SOLUTION IN ORADEA (APRIL – JUNE 1944)
The paper deals with an important aspect of the Holocaust issue of the Jews of Oradea (at that time, Nagyvárad, Hungary) and Northern Bihor during the months of April-June 1944.It is about the deeds of the administrative and military officials involved in the application of the Final Solution in the city on the Crișul Repede River, during the Horthy-Stójay government. We have shown who was responsible for the tragedy of the Jews of Oradea and those living in the northern part of Bihor County, and their most reprehensible actions. These are the main administrative factors in the local institutions: first of all the City Hall led by the mayor of Oradea, the commander of the gendarmerie battalion in the city, with several gendarmerie officers and noncommissioned officers who were in charge of the city ghetto, as well as the prefect of Bihor County. The book focused on a topical bibliography in Romanian, English, and Hungarian, among which we mention the reference paper recently published in Romanian (in 2019), the Geographical Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust in Northern Transylvania, as well as the documents of the Ghettos Process in Northern Transylvania, Vol. I and II, published by Oliver Lustig. These add to works of great relevance written by some prestigious specialists.
Keywords: Northern Transylvania, Bihor, Oradea, ghetto, local officials responsible for the application of Final Solution
20. Veronica TURCUȘ, Șerban TURCUȘ
Ședința de la Cluj pentru constituire a fictivului „Status romano-catolic” (8 august 1950)
THE MEETING IN CLUJ FOR THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FICTITIOUS „ROMAN CATHOLIC STATUS” (AUGUST 8, 1950)
The study brings to light to the historiography of the problem a lesser known episode in the history of the persecution of the Roman Catholic Church in Romania. The communist authorities in Bucharest tried to nationalize the Romanian Catholic Church through schism. At the base of this schismatic church – an association led by excommunicated priests – were to be the Catholic buildings confiscated by the communists in 1948. A meeting was convened in Cluj, in August 1950, by which the Ministry of Cults founded a legal fiction called ”Catholic Status”, which referred to an educational institution created in the sixteenth century in Cluj. During the meeting, the buildings confiscated in 1948 were given to this association, which wanted to replace the Roman Catholic Church in Romania, and thanks were given to the communist authorities for their care for the ”Catholics” in Romania. The founding operation of the schismatic Romanian Catholic Church failed in a few years, but the legal consequences are visible to this day in Transylvania.
Keywords: Romania, Catholic Church, Schism, Cluj, Communist regime
21. Lucian ROPA
Aspecte privind colonia refugiaților comuniști greci de la Ștefănești (Regiunea Argeș) și integrarea acesteia în sistemul administrativ național (1952)
ASPECTS REGARDING THE COLONY OF GREEK COMMUNIST REFUGEES FROM ȘTEFĂNEȘTI (ARGEȘ REGION) AND ITS INTEGRATION INTO THE NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM (1952)
In the village of Ștefănești, near Pitești, a colony of Greek communist refugees was established in 1949. They arrived in Romania due to the Greek Civil War (1946-1949), which the communists lost to the government’s army that had a democratic orientation. The Romanian communist government offered accommodation for over 10,000 adults and 5,000 children from Greece, who were hosted in 12 colonies, the largest being in Tulgheș, Sinaia, Oradea and Ștefănești. More than 2,000 Greek political emigrants were brought to Ștefănești, in the Argeș region, and a colony was settled for them, also known as the Red Cross Ștefănești. It was directly coordinated by the Romanian Labour Party and had as its governing body a committee of 11 members, coordinated by a president. The Romanian authorities created decent living conditions for the Greeks from Ștefănești, a school, a kindergarten, a nursery were built and also a canteen for children, a hospital for the elderly and injured, as well as vocational schools for the disabled ones. In 1952, the central and regional Romanian authorities decided to establish the commune of the colony Red Cross Ștefănești, subordinated to the city of Pitești, but, for political reasons, the stay of the Greek refugees in Ștefănești was interrupted, so that during the years 1953-1954 they were relocated in urban and industrialized centers in the country, where they were offered jobs and where they could have been more easily controlled.
Keywords: the communist regime, The Greek Civil War (1946-1949), Romania, the Greek communist refugees, Ștefănești (Argeș region)
22. Cristina-Liana PUȘCAȘ
Portretele la tinerețe ale „bandiților” din organizația G4
YOUTH PORTRAITS OF “BANDITS” FROM “G 4” ORGANIZATION
Resistance in the mountains was a widespread phenomenon in communist Romania, but little known. Demonstrations against the new regime of Soviet origin took different forms, the Romanians not accepting the political orientation imposed by Moscow and organizing in different forms to oppose the Bolshevik roller. The mountain formations in Romania favored the establishment of such resistance groups. The mountains of Bihor were also an attraction for the inhabitants of the area, and the hope of the arrival of the Americans fueled the belief that the resistance in the mountains will not be endless or useless. To this end, the “G4” Organization was also established.
Keywords: resistance, mountains, communist regime, political detention, “G4” Organization, Bihor County
23. Cristian CULICIU
BETWEEN PROFESSION AND POLITICS. ORADEA PRESS IN THE ATTENTION OF
THE BIHOR COUNTY COMMITTEE OF THE ROMANIAN COMMUNIST PARTY (1970-1989)
During the communist period, the Romanian press was not only a way of informing the public, but especially an instrument of propaganda of the Communist Party. “Wooden language”, censorship and repetitiveness were key elements of all newspapers and magazines of the time. In Oradea in the 1970s and 1980s, two dailies apparead: Crișana and Fáklya, as well as the culture magazine Familia. The publications were in the constant attention of the local authorities. Periodically, the Romanian Communist Party and newspaper offices discussed editorial issues (errors, interpretations not very “to the liking” of the authorities, exaggerations or things that were not taken into account, but considered essential), the way of communicating, the behavior and professional performance of journalists, positive and negative aspects, with proposals for their improvement, things revealed by reports and meeting minutes, kept by the National Archives. The paper focuses on these discussions, in the context of requirements coming “from above” and the claims of the local party leadership.
Keywords: history of communism, Romanian Communist Party, Oradea and Bihor, press, censorship, archives, newspapers, journalism
24. Gabriel MOISA
Politique et histoire dans l’historiographie roumaine postcommuniste: 1990-2010. Quelques considerations
POLITICS AND HISTORY IN POST-COMMUNIST ROMANIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY: 1990-2010. SOME CONSIDERATIONS
Authoritarian regimes have a special dialogue with the discipline of history, a dialogue almost always located in positions of strength. The phenomenon has been studied several times. Bogdan Murgescu, for example, spoke of an “increased voluntarism in attempts to control historical knowledge” of totalitarian regimes. The Romanian totalitarian context was definitely in this direction as early as 1948 when the elite of Romanian historians were removed from the space of Romanian culture. The tools used by the totalitarian system in the subordination of history are not too varied and / or sophisticated. The register in which we operated was the direct one, situated between the explicit political command addressed to the “historical front” and the social and even physical repression of those who were recalcitrant. In general, the discussion of post-communist historiography runs with difficulty. The motives are diverse, some objective and some subjective and I will not dwell on these now. But during this period historiography found itself in a permanent dialogue with society, historiography taking on the image of society. The development of the profession of historian cannot be separated from the development of Romanian society as a whole or from the development of international contexts.
Keywords: Politics, ideology, historiography, post-communism, Romania
1. Tiberiu Alexandru CIORBA
Contribuții la istoria Muzeului Țării Crișurilor (sec. XIX-XX)
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF THE ȚĂRII CRIȘURILOR MUSEUM (19TH-21ST CENTURY)
The history of the Țării Crișurilor Museum is a complex and interesting one. It reflects both the evolution of museology as a new science, how it manifested localy through the years and how the institution itself changed and shifted its importance, thus becoming a cornerstone of the social landscape of Oradea. The museum does not only hold a scientific importance but a cultural and social one. The many changes that the institution underwent mirror and reflect the changes and the rapid modernization of the city itself. This article aims to present the means by which this institution came to be and the most significant moments in its 150 years of activity. At the same time, it tries to underline the growing number of collections and artefacts that are held here and the many places where the museum had its headquarters. Analysing each period we can discover and see how the local individuals saw themselves, because one of the main functions of a museum is to present and reflect the unique specificities and traditions of the population.
Keywords: museum, collections, Oradea, Țara Crișului, Society, artefacts, patrimony
2. Doina-Gabriela ANANIE
Pictori-fotografi în colecția de fotografii a Secției de istorie a Muzeului Țării Crișurilor
PAINTERS-PHOTOGRAPHERS IN ȚĂRII CRIȘURILOR MUSEUM’S HISTORY DEPARTMENT PHOTO COLLECTION
Louis Daguerre’s discovery marks the beginning of photography. Curious, passionate and enterprising spirits will bring the new technique to Eastern Europe, not long after its discovered. Early photographers were also painters. The collaboration between the two, in spite of impediments, proved to be a prolific one, for both photography and art.
Keywords: photographer, painter, cabinet portrait, art
3. TŐTŐS Áron
Colecția de presă și periodice maghiare a Muzeului Țării Crișurilor din Oradea
THE HUNGARIAN PRESS AND PERIODICALS COLLECTION OF THE ȚĂRII CRIȘURILOR MUSEUM OF ORADEA
Within the History Department of the Țării Crișurilor (Criș Country) Museum of Oradea there is a collection of periodicals and newspapers, with 1798 inventory numbers. In this paper, we analyse the 339 issues from this collection that are published in Hungarian. We will refer to the history of the collection, the origin of the goods and their types, the state of conservation, their originality and scientific capitalization of the pieces, in the perspective of arranging the future basic exhibition.
Keywords: museography, history, Oradea, press and periodicals collection
4. Călin GHEMIȘ
Din istoria cercetărilor arheologice în nord-vestul Transilvaniei: dr. Andrassy Ernest
FROM THE HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN NORTHWESTERN TRANSYLVANIA: DR. ANDRASSY ERNEST
Among the Bihor personalities from the first decades of the 20th century, Ernest Andrassy occupies a special place first of all through his work in the archaeological research of the Ier Valley. Its most important discoveries are undoubtedly the settlements of the Otomani and Sălacea, belonging to the Bronze Age. He carried out other smaller archaeological researches at Valea lui Mihai, Şimian, Văşad, Curtuiuşeni, Galoşpetreu, etc., covering most of the periods from Paleolithic to Middle Ages. The discovered materials were included in the exhibition of the museum that bore his name, inaugurated in 1952, a museum that covered, in addition to the archeology of the area, the fauna and ethnography of the Ier Valley Unfortunately, due to the climate established in Romania in 1947 but especially after the time of Budapest in 1956, Dr. Andrassy was arrested in 1958 on suspicion of having links with anti-communist revolutionaries and plotting against the communist regime. In 1964 he was released and in 1968 he died and was buried in the Catholic cemetery in Valea lui Mihai. Through the legacy left to posterity Ernest Andrassy can rightly be considered one of the fathers of archeology in Crişana and beyond, and the fact that a number of Romanian and foreign researchers have reported and used his discoveries only confirms the value of Andrassy’s research.
Keywords: memorialistics, archaeology, history of archaeology, interwar period, communist period
articol complet / full article
RECENZII / BOOK REVIEWS
- Cristian Apati, Românii bihoreni în Primul Război Mondial. (documente), 3 vol., Editura Primus, Oradea, 2019, 1504 p. (Ioan Ciorba) – text complet / full text
- Georges Minois, Istoria Evului Mediu. O mie de ani de splendoare și ticăloșie, traducere din limba franceză și note de Doru Mareș, Editura Nemira, Editura Orion, București, 2021, 533 p. (Tiberiu Alexandru Ciorba) – text complet / full text
- Veronica Turcuș, Șerban Turcuș, Italia-România. O bibliografie cât o istorie, Editura Școala Ardeleană, Cluj-Napoca, 2020, 823 p. (Florina Ciure) – text complet / full text
- Lucian Ropa, Organizarea administrativ-teritorială a României în perioada regimului comunist, Cluj-Napoca, Academia Română, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, 2020, 666 p. (Cristian Culiciu) – text complet / full text
- Emődi András, Régi templomi toronyórák Biharban és környékén (Vechi orologii în bisericile din Bihor şi împrejurimile sale), Cluj-Napoca – Oradea, Erdélyi Múzeum Egyesület (Asociaţia Muzeului Ardelean) – Királyhágómelléki Református Egyházkerület (Eparhia Reformată de pe lângă Piatra Craiului), 2018, 123 p. (Ronald Hochhauser) – text complet / full text
- Pr. Dr. Ciprian Robotin, O viață în slujba Bisericii și a națiunii: Episcopul Dr. Demetriu Radu, Editura Artpres, Timișoara, 2020, 366 p. (Cristian Hoduț) – text complet / full text
- Szalai Emese, Agyagba zárt hétköznapok – A 15-17, századi fazekasság emlékei a gyulai várból (Viaţa de zi cu zi închisă în lut – Memoria ceramicii de secolele XV-XVII din cetatea de la Gyula), Gyulai Katalógusok (Cataloagele de la Giula), nr. 14, redactor: András Liska, editat de Erkel Ferenc Kulturális Központ și Múzeum Nonprofit Kft, Gyula, 2018, 180 p. (Mihálka Nándor) – text complet / full text
- Adriano Papo, Gizella Nemeth Papo, Nemăsurata ispită a puterii. Gheorghe Martinuzzi. Adevăratul rege al Transilvaniei în secolul al XVI-lea, Editura Ratio et Revelatio, Oradea, 2019, 496 p. (Ecaterina Parșenco) – text complet / full text
- Mihai Georgiță, Cristian Apati, Radu Milian, Bihorul în drumul spre Unire, mărturii documentare inedite (octombrie 1918 – mai 1919), Editura Muzeului Țării Crișurilor, Oradea, 2019, 604 p. (Cristina Liana Pușcaș) – text complet / full text
- Florin Ardelean, Istoria presei culturale din Oradea. Studii (I), Editura Eikon, Cluj-Napoca, 2019, 328 p. (Cristina Liana Pușcaș) – text complet / full text
- Între istorie naţională şi istorie contemporană. Studii în onoarea profesorului Mihai Drecin. Coordonatori: Gabriel Moisa, Sorin Şipoş, Editura Universităţii din Oradea, Editura Pro Universitaria, Bucureşti, 2019, 480 p. (Marian Trandafir) – text complet / full text