Crisia 2020, L

Articol introductiv: Gabriel Moisa, Alin Balotă

Revista Crisia la ceas aniversar – 50 de ani în slujba istoriei naționale

Anniversary Clock Crisia magazine – 50 years in favor of national history

This year marks half a century since the publication of Crisia magazine. Over time, it has become one of the most prestigious Romanian publications. The stated purpose of the journal was to publish the results of history and archeology research, through studies and materials related mainly to Bihor County. The crisis was par excellence a local publication. This did not affect the importance of the periodical. By capitalizing on some unique and interesting information related to the history of Bihor, he made an important contribution to the development of Transylvanian historiography.

Keywords: 50 years, Cris County Museum, Oradea, Crisia, history, archaeology


STUDII / STUDIES

1. Gruia Fazecaș, Florin Gogâltan

Multilayered settlements of the Bronze Age in the Crișuri basin. State of research (2016)

In this outline concerning the archaeological researches carried out in the last five years in the multilayered settlements of the Bronze Age in “northwest Romania”, we preferred to use the phrase Crişuri River Basin Basin collocation (because the Criş River is formed in Hungary) instead of other geographic or historic terms. A number 33 sites considered as multilayered settlements has been considered. Starting from the 2013 state of research, before the start of our project “Living in the Bronze Age Tell Settlements. A study of Settlement Archaeology at the Eastern Frontier of Carpathian Basin” we have tracked the information we acquired over the last five years about this type of habitation. Thus, land surveys conducted to identify all sites, whether are or not aerial photographs, digital terrain modeling, geomagnetic and soil resistance research, topographical surveys and 14C data samplings were mentioned. The outcome of these researches is obvious: it is clear that over the past five years, important steps have been taken in multilayered settlements knowledge. But numerous aspects, such as absolute chronology, geomagnetic surveys, excavations are still at an unsatisfactory level, a lot of problems are still unresolved, in order to approach a coherent view over the Middle Bronze Age period (2000/1900 – 1600/1500 BC) in Crișuri Rivers Basin.

Keywords: Bronze Age, multilayered settlements, landscape archaeology, Crișuri Rivers Basin


2. Cristian Ioan Popa

Toporul de prestigiu din epoca bronzului de la Vințiu de Jos (Sibișeni)

The Bronze Age prestige axe from Vințiu de Jos (Sibișeni)

In 1996, the research team in the archaeological site from Vințu de Jos-Deasupra Satului was presented with an ornate sandstone axe that had been found by accident. The item was whole, naviforme, approximately centrally perforated and its sides had rich spiralling incised decorations. Another, more rudimentary decoration that was probably made subsequently is still visible on its upper part. It is most likely an imported item, possibly from the south-Danube or Aegean region, used by its owner as a prestige good. The axe is a unique item for the current Romanian space and it must have belonged to the Wietenberg II Bronze Age settlement that was documented both as a rich settlement and as a necropolis which was located in its vicinity.

Keywords: Bronze Age, Wietenberg, stone axe, spiralling decorations, sceptre


3. Alexandra Găvan, Marian-Adrian Lie, Tobias Kielin

Preliminary report on the 2019 excavation undertaken on the outer settlement of the Tell from Toboliu (Bihor County)

This paper details the preliminary results of an excavation undertaken in the outer settlement surrounding the tell in Toboliu – Dâmbu Zănăcanului. The excavation consisted of a single unit (labelled as Trench 4) measuring 5.80 × 12.30 m and aimed to establish the date, cultural context and construction details of a structure visible in the geomagnetic plan in this part of the site that was interpreted as a possible house (Fig. 1-2). This was the first trench opened on the outer settlement surrounding the tell site from Toboliu and it was located approximately 630 m north and 50 m west of the centre of the settlement mound (Fig. 1). Previous non-invasive investigations at the site consisting primarily of geomagnetic prospections and surface surveys (Lie et al. 2019, 356-357, fig. 4-5) indicated that the area under investigation was part of the outer settlement of the tell in Toboliu, with geophysical anomalies corresponding to the surface distribution of Middle Bronze Age (MBA) pottery sherds and burnt daub fragments. This area was chosen for excavation mostly due to accessibility reasons, since it was one of the few surfaces of the outer settlement that was left uncultivated during 2019. Furthermore, a large anomaly was visible in the geomagnetic plan of the outer settlement in this area, which was potentially interpreted to represent the remains of a house (Fig. 2).

Keywords: tell sites, outer settlement, Bronze Age, Eastern Carpathian Basin, excavation


4. Ioan Bejinariu, Alin Henț

Pumnalul de bronz de la Pădurenii, comuna Mintiu Gherlii, județul Cluj

The bronze dagger from Pădurenii, commune of Mintiu Gherlii, Cluj County

In this paper we intend to publish a bronze dagger accidentally discovered in the locality of Pădurenii, commune of Mintiu Gherlii, Cluj County, in the place called “Cobor”. On the occasion of field survey, we came to the conclusion that the dagger was found in a place where the narrow top of the hill widens and is relatively flat. Moreover, in the close vicinity of the place of discovery, it can be observed at least four barrows, two of which are relatively large, with a maximum diameter between 20 and 30 m and a current height between 1, 50 and 3 m. The barrows are located south from the place where the dagger was found. To the north of this place, the top of the hill narrows again and rises in a visible manner. On this part there are another 5-6 smaller and less dominant barrows, but they can be easily recognised. A last barrow, this time larger, is located right at the highest point of the hill, in the northern part, where there is also a bifurcation of the higher area to the east. Our object of study is the blade of a bronze dagger with a trapezoidal tang, with four holes for rivets, placed two by two on each side of the tang. Two of the holes are still visible while the other two are only partially preserved. The blade is slender, with a sharp point and a raised rib in the middle and present a rhombic section. Moreover, the edge is relatively damaged in large parts and has a jagged appearance. Dimensions: total length: 24.20 cm; tang length: 3.50 cm; maximum width of the tang: 3.80 cm; maximum width of the blade: 2.20 cm; weight 76.20 g. Regarding the chronology of this type of daggers with trapezoidal plate and four rivets, we found that the vast majority of discoveries are coming from Central Europe and Eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin and are attributed to a chronological sequence synchronous with the Koszider deposits, in other words in the final stages of the Middle Bronze age period. Although lacking a clear context of discovery, we believe that our object can be placed in the third stage of the Middle Bronze Age period from Transylvania. However, we cannot exclude even a dating of the dagger in the first stages of the Late Bronze age period, especially since we are talking about a “foreign” piece to the local cultural milieu. In the context of presenting this discovery, the authors resume also the problem of the presence of bronze pieces with Central European origins from the Middle Bronze Age period, discovered on the territory of Transylvania. A large number of discoveries can be noticed (deposits, isolated discoveries, pieces from settlements and burials) in the southwestern part of Transylvania, especially on the corridor of Mureș River and its main afluents starting from the second stage of the Middle Bronze Age period. On the other hand, for the northern half of Transylvania, the findings of this type are less numerous. It is important to mention here the bronze sword from Spermezeu and the dagger / short bronze sword from Căianu Mic. However, an important group of bronze objects with origins in Central European metallurgy can be noticed in the Șimleului Depression, the connecting area between the Upper Tisza region and the northern part of the Transylvanian Plateau, including the “Someșan Corridor” (the bronze sword from Vălișoara, Sălaj County). However, all these discoveries date back to the last stages of the Middle Bronze Age period from Transylvania (Middle Bronze Age III), and culturally they can be related to the period of the evolution of the Wietenberg III phase. Their presence can be related to the exploitation of salt resources in the basin of Someșul Mare River (Băile Figa, Săsarm, Caila, Cepari, etc.) and especially to the circulation of this precious resource to the west, in the area of the Hungarian Great Plain, intensely inhabited but lacking this vital resource.

Keywords: Transylvania, Central Europe, bronze dagger, longdistance relations, salt


5. Corina Toma

Tezaurul de monede de la Sânnicolau Român (jud. Bihor). Asocierea dintre tipurile monetare Medieșu Aurit și Toc-Chereluș

The coin hoard found at Sânnicolau Român (Bihor County). Relationship between Medieșu Aurit and Toc-Chereluș coin-types

The article brings back to attention the La Tène coin hoard found (during the 70’s) at Sânnicolau Roman (com. Cefa, Bihor County). The content of hoard has only been partially recovered: 24 from circa 100 coins, one of them Toc-Chereluș type, and the others Medieșu Aurit type – group c. Using the relationship between these two type of coins, we reopen the discussion about the characteristics of Medieșu Aurit type-coins, and the issue of dating them in relation with the Toc-Chereluș scyphate.

Keywords: Sânnicolau Român coin hoard, Medieșu-Aurit type, Toc-Chereluș type, large and small flan,
cronology


6. Sorin Șipoș

Royal and Palatine congregations in Bihor County (13th-14th Centuries)

Like everywhere in Europe, in the Hungarian Kingdom, in the 13th century, several judicial assemblies were taking place, the ones in Székesfehérvár (Alba Regia) standing out. Since the second half of the century, on Saint Stephen’s Day, gatherings (synodum, concillium) in which the King was crowned started to take place, however it was also there that the various complaints of the servant were examined. The stipulations of the Golden Bull, in the year 1222, also encompass the first elements that reveal additional functions of these gatherings. Out of the 17 general assemblies, two were presided by Ladislaus IV, in 1279, and by Bela 4th, in 1291, and the one in 1284 by Roland Borșa and Bartolomeu, bishop of Oradea, by royal order, and 3 were presided by Dousa, in the capacity of judge delegated by the king. The 11 remaining assemblies were palatine assemblies, among which one was presided by Filip the palatine, three by Vilhem Drugeth, palatine and judge of the Cumans, one by Ladislaus, duke of Oppeln, palatine and judge of the Cumans, and two by Nicolae of Gara, palatine and judge of the Cumans. Regarding the judged matters, the majority of them were problems related to property, iniquities, robberies, murders, establishing borders, document confirmations, tribute exemptions and customs rights confirmations. In the general assemblies presided by Ladislaus IV and Andrew III were pronounced rulings, through which the nobles that had betrayed the king were sentenced to death and had their properties seized. These were the gatherings where the most complicated matters were judged. An important congregation was the one presided by Roland Borșa, voivode of Transylvania, and Dominic, bishop of Oradea, which regulated the customs rights in the kingdom, in this case, the Birtin customs. In most of the trials, the actors involved are members of the nobility and representatives of the clergy, and only in one case do we have the representatives of a community filing a lawsuit against a noble for land.

Keywords: Royal and Palatine Congregations, Bihor County, Hungarian Kingdom, 13th-14th centuries


7. Adriano Papo, Gizella Nemeth

La testimonianza del vescovo di Veszprém Pál Bornemisza al processo per l’assassinio di Frate Giorgio Martinuzzi. 1553

The Testimony of the Bishop of Veszprém Pál Bornemisza at the Trial for Friar George Martinuzzi’s Murder. 1553

Pál Bornemisza was one of the main accusers at the trial brought by the Holy See against Ferdinand of Habsburg and his accomplices, defendants of the murder of Cardinal George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics, better known as Friar George, which was perpetrated in the castle of Alvinc, now Vinţu de Jos in Romania, on 17 December 1551. In this article the testimony given by Pál Bornemisza in Graz on March 18, 1553 in the presence of the apostolic nuncio to Vienna Girolamo Martinengo is transcribed and analysed. During the interrogations, Bornemisza confirmed almost all the accusations against Friar George, particularly on the basis of what he had heard by people in Transylvania after the death of the friar and of the letters written by Martinuzzi to the Porta and read in his presence at the Royal Council in Vienna.

Keywords: Pál Bornemisza, George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics, Graz, 1553, Girolamo Martinengo


8. M. Marcella Ferraccioli, Gianfranco Giraudo

Itinéraires balkaniques des frères Sebastiani

Balcan routes of the Sebastiani brothers

Paolo and Giuseppe Sebastiani, Armenian Catholics from Constantinople, persecuted because of their faith, or financial problems, obtain asylum in Rome. A tournant in the history of the Sebastiani Family is represented by the affaire Dusoglu, born as a financial scandal and ended in tragedy. It is the alleged disappearance of a huge sum escaped from the confiscation of the assets of the Dus Oglu which becomes an indictment, one of many, from which the Sebastiani brothers are forced to defend themselves against real or alleged slanderers and judicial inquiries. This articles presents the last stage of the presumptive Via Crucis of brothers Sebastiani, once rich merchants from Constantinople.

Keywords: Brothers Sebastiani, Armenian Catholics, Balkans, Constantinople, Rome


9. Francesco Ruvolo

Da Palermo a Timișoara. Il culto di Santa Rosalia patrona della peste, nell’Europa d’Ancien Regime

From Palermo to Timișoara. The cult of Santa Rosalia patroness of the plague, in ancien regime Europe

The essay studies the diffusion after the plague of Palermo in 1624 of the cult of Santa Rosalia, who becomes patroness against the plague also in Central Europe in a climate of counter-reform, to oppose Protestantism. Even today in a central square of Timișoara you can admire a stele in memory of the liberation of the plague of 1731-38 with – among the sculpted images – the effigy of the Palermo Saint Rosalia.

Keywords: Rosalia, plague, Counter-Reformation, Palermo, Timișoara, 1731-38


10. Florina Ciure

Cucerirea Oradiei de către habsburgi în izvoare italiene. Operațiunile militare din anul 1691

The conquest of Oradea by the Habsburgs in Italian sources. Military operations in 1691

This article presents new research about the conquest of Oradea contained in Corriere ordinario, the oldest newspaper published in Italian language on Habsburg territory. These reports, included in 8th volume of Avvisi italiani, ordinarii e straordinarii, present in detail the actions of Imperial armies against the Ottomans in Oradea, during 1691. They were published in Italian language in Vienna by Johann van Ghelen. By publishing these documents, the Habsbourgs intended to popularise the successes of the Imperial armies, that after the failed siege of Vienna (1683), entered in possesion of the territories of former Kingdom of Hungary holded by the Ottomans. These documents provide new evidence about a tumultuos period in the history of Oradea. They attest, however, the level of knowledge of the realities of this part of Europe in the Habsburg Empire.

Keywords: Oradea, Vienna, Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, 1691


11. Mihai Georgiță

Starea materială a clerului românesc din Ardeal și Crișana în secolul al XVIII-lea (până la Edictul de Toleranță terezian)

The material condition of the Romanian clergy from Transylvania and Crișana in the 18th Century (after the Teresian Edict of Tolerance)

The union of the Romanian church in Transylvania with the Church of Rome should improve the material condition of the clergy according to the diploma issued by Emperor Leopold. But the implementation in practice has been difficult due to the opposition of the Diet of Transylvania principality to which Crișana belonged until 1732. Thus, in the first half of the 18th century the Greek Catholic bishop was forced to fight for the rights stipulated in the diploma of Emperor Leopold regarding the lower clergy, which in great majority had not declared themselves for union, still being considered by the Court of Vienna to belong to the church united with the church of Rome. Therefore, the Romanian priests, with few exceptions, had to make a living like the parishioners. It was not until the second half of the 18th century, after strong religious movements, that the issue of providing the priest with parish land and income would allow him a better pastoral care. In Crișana, the union was supported by the Catholic bishop, who was at the same time the supreme committee of Bihor, but here it was hit by the jurisdiction of the Orthodox diocese of Arad, which benefited from Illyrian privileges. Thus, after 1732, the Catholic diocese had to pay the Greek Catholic priests a salary, although lower, compared to that of Catholic priests. Instead, according to Illyrian privileges, the Orthodox priest was also secured with parish land, with all his proceeds being imposed on a global taxation.

Keywords: material condition, Romanian church, Teresian edict, Transylvania, Crișana


12. Ronald Hochhauser

Fragmente din istoria companiilor din domeniul divertismentului, reprezentate prin colecția de aparate de muzică mecanică din patrimoniul Muzeului Țării Crișurilor

Fragments from a history of entertainment companies, represented by the collection of mechanical music instruments of the “Țării Crişurilor” Museum

In the collections of the regional museum in Oradea there are twenty-three mechanical music instruments, which bring to light famous companies such as: Paul Ehrlich, Lochmann, Polyphon, Euphonika etc., but also at the same time some of the lesser-known companies are to be found here, such as Sternberg Ármin and his Brother or Diego Fuchs. We consider our approach a contribution to the formation of an image as close to reality as possible regarding the activities carried out by these companies and more. Elaborated chronologically, similar to historical monograph sketches, the present text intends to be an addendum to the study entitled Mechanical musical instruments from the collection of the “Țării Crișurilor” Museum (Colecția Muzeului Țării Crișurilor de aparate de muzică mecanică), published a year before in Crisia.

Keywords: company history, mechanical music, collection


13. Mihai Drecin, Delia Cora

Piața comunală – Centrul de schimb pentru produsele alimentare. Studiu de caz: Oradea și Bihor (1850-1950)

The Communal Market – The food exchange center. Case study: Oradea and Bihor County (1850-1950)

From Greek and Roman Antiquity, in the center of urban settlements, the market played an important role in the development of daily life. Here, the citizens gathered to make important decisions for the urban congregation, along with the trade of material goods, including coins. In the Middle Ages the role of the communal market grows, surrounded by the main local institutions: the town hall, the church, the credit banks, the stock exchange, the chambers of commerce and industry, along with the palaces of the local political and economic elite. The Western-European model will expand as cities in the area begin to modernize, introducing new services: drinking water, sewerage, mail, telephone, telegraph, public lighting, public transportation, paved streets, etc. The modern city of Oradea Mare is constituted between 1949-1850 by uniting the “4 small towns”, under the leadership of a single mayor and a city council. Between 1890-1910, in parallel with the construction of the palaces in the Viennese style, the main markets of the city are delimited: Piata Mică (today Piata Unirii), Piața Teatrului (today Piaţa Ferdinand) and Piața Mare (today Piața 1 Decembrie). In the first market, luxury and food products were selled, including in the shops on the ground floor of the palace-buildings, Piața Teatrului was delimited by restaurants, cafes and hotels, and in Piața Mare there was organized the fair of animals and cereal products. The installation of the Romanian administration in 1919 led to an increase in the number and modern organization of the markets, both in Oradea and in the most important communes of Bihor county. Weekly and quarterly fairs are well defined in the commune area and supervised by the health, administrative and financial services. In each market, where food and livestock products were being produced, mercurial products were carefully supervised by employees of the town hall and public finances. It is a clearly superior stage in the administration of markets and fairs compared to the reality before 1918, the citizens’ nutrition being well controlled by the local administrative factors.

Keywords: city, town market, communal markets, 1850-1950, Oradea and Bihor County


14. Florin Ardelean

1870-2020. Un secol și jumătate de la nașterea Societății pentru fond de Teatru Român

1870-2020. A Century and a half since the birth of the Society for the Romanian Theater Fund

 In the context of the existence of the Austro-Hungarian dualism, and the lack of political representation of the Romanians in Transylvania, the initiatives of some leaders or exponents of the intellectuals, some of them active in the field of cultural journalism, were very welcome. The cultural magazines and the associations of the Transylvanians from the Empire were a wall of resistance in front of the denationalization tendencies, often managing to reduce the number of renegades. One such institution, with one of the most notable activities, was the Society for the Romanian Theater Fund. October 2020 marked the 150th anniversary of its founding.

Keywords: Society for the Romanian Theater Fund, Transylvania, Romanians, national identity


15. Doina-Gabriela Ananie

Ofițerul mechanic Clasa I Gheorghe Andronescu

The mechanical officer 1st Class Gheorghe Andronescu

The mechanical officer 1st Class Gheorghe Andronescu, sent by the Romanian state in Italy and France in order to improve his knowledge, fulfilled his mission successfully. In addition to the precious information he gathered, he managed to obtain a certificate for submarine navigation skills, which was the proof for his serious trainings.

Keywords: mechanical officer, marine school, First World War, destroyer, submarine


16. Călin Ghemiș

Medalii sportive orădene: Asociația Sportivă Orădeană/Nagyváradi Sport Egylet 1906-1931

Oradea sports medals: Oradea Sports Associations/ Nagyvárady Sport Egylet 1906-1931

This article aims to present four numismatic pieces, two silver medals (Fig.1-2) an medal made in common metal, and one plaqeutte issued by one of the first sportive association in Oradea founded in 1906. The medals were issued on the occasion of several sport conquests but unfortunately there are not so many information about them. The third piece, was an awardmedal, and the fourth was issued on the aniversary of 25 years of the existence of the Nagyvaradi Sport Egylet, both of them were made by the famous medalist Lajos Beran.

Keywords: local history, sport, medals, plaquets, silver, bronze


17. Răzvan Mihai Neagu

Desființarea Baroului de avocați Turda (1947-1950)

The dissolution of the Lawyers Bar in Turda (1947-1950)

The Lawyers Bar was a traditional institution in the history of Turda, which functioned between the years 1923-1950. Among its members we mention many personalities of the town and county Turda, such as Valer Moldovan Augustin Raţiu, Mihai Moldovan, Emil Cheţianu and many others. In the inter-war time the representatives of the barristers from Turda attended the general congresses of the Romanian Lawyers Union. The irretrievably setting of the Communism in Romania had among its multiple negative consequences the irreversible dissolution of the Bar in Turda, during a process taking place between 1947- 1950, which, in our opinion consisted of four phases: 1) forming a trade union (1947); 2) the dissolution of the old Bar and its replacement with The Bar Association (1948); 3) the purge done (1948); 4) the dissolution of the county, the ending of the activity of The Bar Association and their incorporation in the Lawyers Bar Association in Cluj (1950).

Keywords: Lawyer, Turda, Bar, Communist regime, Purge


18. Veronica Turcuș, Șerban Turcuș

Cominformul și abuzarea culturii. Torquato Tasso ca element de joncțiune comunistă italo-română în anul 1955

Cominform and abuse of culture. Torquato Tasso as an element of Italian-Romanian Communist junction in 1955

Two letters from the Archives of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs highlight how the commemoration of 360 years since the death of the poet Torquato Tasso is speculatively celebrated in communist Romania exactly at a time when bilateral relations were at their lowest possible level. The situation was of such a nature in the context of the prosecution and abusive closure of Eraldo Pintori, an official of the Italian Legation in Bucharest. Romania invited to Bucharest a delegation led by the mayor of Ferrara, Luisa Balboni who had a long activity in the Italian Communist Party, also owning a conspiracy house during the Second World War. Tasso’s activity had been fundamentally linked to the city of Ferrara, but there was no compatibility between his poetic works and the ideology of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe, making Romania’s interest in Torquato Tasso incomprehensible at that time. The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs refused to allow this delegation to travel as it considered that Romania had not officially informed the government in Rome (but only a member of the Italian Communist Party), the conclusion of the study being that, in the midst of the Italian-Romanian political crisis, the government in Bucharest would have liked to support and strengthen, probably on behalf of the USSR, relations with Western communists under the guise of the commemoration of Torquato Tasso’s death.

Keywords: Torquato Tasso, Ferrara, communist Romania’s cultural diplomacy, Italian Communist Party


19. Cristian Culiciu

Contribuții la cunoașterea activității Uniunii Tineretului Comunist din Oradea (II). Locul de muncă și pregătirea politică (1968-1972)

Contributions on the activity of the Oradea branch of the Union of Communist Youth (II). Job and political preparation (1968-1972)

During the 1960’s and 1970’s the Romanian Communist Party was controling all aspects of the country’s everyday life. Young people were advised, more ore less obliged to become members of the Union of Communist Youth. It was a national organization for people of age 14 to 26. All members had to participate al political, ideological and cultural activities, had to work properly and not create production faults in the factories they were working in. The following paper reffers to some aspects available in Oradea in a time considered to be more ideologically ”relaxing” then the years before. The local Committee of the Union of Communist Youth had some 25.000 members, and the archives show that they were participating at different political meetings and conferences, job-related activities and so called ”patriotic work”, for the benefit of the community. Positive and negative aspects of all activities are also included in the study, revealing that the system had a lot of problems.

Keywords: history of communism, The Union of Communist Youth, working force, ideology, propaganda,
Oradea


20. Ștefan-Marius Deaconu

Politca de stat privind repartizarea absolvenților de învățământ superior în Romania anilor ’70

State policy on the distribution of education graduates in Romania in the ’70s

The article analyses the context in which Decree no. 158/1970 and Decree no. 54/1975. These represented the expression of the state policy regarding the distribution of higher education graduates in Romania in the 1970s. If in the period 1970-1974 we can discuss a “humanized” policy on distribution, in the second part of the decade we are witnessing a sharp anti-meritocracy attitude and regulations that have significantly limited the individual choices of graduates. They also generated an “uprooting” of young people entering the labour force. The two decrees are, at the same time, suggestive for the way in which the Romanian Communist Party related to the young intellectuals during the analysed decade.

Keywords: Higher education graduates, working field, highly qualified labour force, young intellectuals,
Ceaușescu, Romania, the `70s, communism


21. Gabriel Moisa, Livia Bucur

Education, official propaganda and the cult of Nicolae Ceaușescu’s personality. Case study: History museums

In the last two decades of the communist regime, museum institutions were involved in a series of propaganda activities with precise themes designed primarily to consolidate the personality cult of the Romanian president. The institutionalized system of museums was attached to the official propaganda. Unfortunately, for the two decades in question, the phenomenon of promoting Nicolae Ceauşescu’s personality cult was ubiquitous, suffocating all activities in museums.

Keywords: history museums, propaganda, Nicolae Ceaușescu, personality cult


22. Roland Olah

Rolul și contribuția structurilor O.N.U. în rezolvarea problemei refugiaților români din Ungaria în anii `80

The role and contribution of UN structures in solving the problem of Romanian refugees from Hungary in the ‘80s

In this paper we present the phenomenon of the illegal cross border in the 80’s, that is increasingly developing by intensifying the social and economic crisis in Romania, due to Ceaușescu’ s regime. The Romanians left their country through two routes: the Yugoslav and the Hungarian. Starting with 1988, the phenomenon of fraudulent passage by Romanians was an increasingly difficult problem to manage by the Hungarian authorities. In this sense, they will seek and obtain the support of the United Nations, which through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees will directly contribute to resolving the crisis of Romanian refugees on the territory of Hungary.

Keywords: refugees, the United Nations, UNHCR, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Horn Gyula


MUZEOGRAFIE / MUSEOLOGY

1. Laura Fălcan

Cum practica conservării poate să contribuie la scopul comun al comunicării trecutului. Cazul patrimoniului mobil al bisericilor de lemn din Banat

How can conservation practice contribute to the common purpose of past communication. The case of the mobile heritage of the wooden churches from Banat

How important are the choices made by the conservators in the conservation-restoration process and how much it affects the selection and the way in which the stories of the past are brought to the present and are projected in the future. Can one make sure that the selected material has relevance for today’s society? Objects of worship from wooden churches with historical value can represent art pieces, in which the religious tradition and the artistic idea have been harmoniously associated, and they may be of importance to researchers. As arguments in favor of introducing into the scientific circuit some objects of worship, and can be representative for the artistic processing of metals, is included a presentation of two such pieces, unknown and which had undergone the process of intervention through conservation methods and safeguard proposal. The article presents the conservation treatments that were applied on two communion chalices belonging to the wooden churches from Timiș County, namely the wooden church from Crivina de Sus and the wooden church from Poieni, Pietroasa commune. Preservation operations are presented, from the investigation of the elements in the composition, to the complete cleaning of the pieces, by applying physical and chemical treatment.

Keywords: wooden churches, cultural value, chalice, cooper, conservation treatment