Crisia 2019, XLIX

1. Victor SAVA, Așezarea eneolitică Ghioroc “CFR Situl 1”, județul Arad

The Eneolithic Settlement Ghioroc “CFR Situl 1”, Arad County

During 2018 a small settlement was identified and excavated, near Ghioroc, Arad County. The site was investigated during a preventive archaeological excavation that was initiated as a result of the rehabilitation of the Curtici-Simeria railway. In the area of 2250 m2 were discovered nine features, of which eight agglomerations of artifacts. The novelty of the site comes from the ephemeral nature of the deposits. The small agglomerations formed mainly of pot sherds were discovered at a depth of approximately – 0.40 m, where the black soil was merging with the yellow clay. Although most of the pottery is atypical, two of them preserve the specific décor of the Middle Eneolithic. We believe that this small settlement comes to complete the vast array of discoveries made as a result of preventive excavations in the Lower Mureș Basin. The main purpose of this article is to present a type of site that can be difficult to identify in preventive archaeological excavations.

2. Călin Ghemiș, Toporul aparţinând epocii bronzului, descoperit la Loranta, com. Brusturi, jud. Bihor

The Shafthole Axe Belonging to the Early Bronze Age, Discovered at Loranta, com. Brusturi, Bihor County

This brief note aims to present a recent discovered Copper Axe discovered in 21.10.2019 in the village of Loranta, the spot was verified in 27.10.2019 but unfortunately no other archaeological material appeared in the field research. Based on the morfo-typological characteristics, the axe belongs to the Dumbrăvioara type who s evolution is placed in the second part of the Early Bronze Age. Taking account the analogies from Izbucu Topliţei cave the axe from Loranta is linked with the Roşia Type discoveries. In conclusion, we deal with a single item deposit, who can be put into relation with the intense traffic on the Criş Valley who links Transilvania with the Hungarian Plain.

3. Marian Adrian LIE, A New Archaeological Site Found at Toboliu „Râtu’ Alceului” (Bihor County)

During the 2019 geomagnetism campaign, in the secondary settlement of the Bronze Age tell from Toboliu Dâmbu Zănăcanului, a new archeological site was discovered in the point called Râtu Alceului. It is located about 2km south of Toboliu commune and 2.2km southwest of Dâmbu Zănăcanului. Based on the ceramic fragments discovered here, it can be said that the following periods are represented: the copper age, the bronze age, the first and second iron age, the Roman period and the early Middle Ages. The intention of this paper is to make this site known and to contribute to the presentation of a more detailed image of the network of settlements in this area.

4. Gheorghe DRIMBA, Gruia FAZECAŞ, O perspectivă istorică asupra evoluției mediului geografic în preajma tell-ului aparținând epocii bronzului de la Sântion “Dealul Mănăstirii/Klastromdomb” (județul Bihor)

A Historical Perspective on the Evolution of the Environment around the Bronze Age Tell Settlement from Sântion “Dealul Mănăstirii/Klastromdomb” (Bihor County)

Connecting the activities of mankind’s past to the habitat space is more than obvious in archaeological research. When we resume the archaeological research in the tell settlement at Sântion “Dealul Mănăstirii/Klastromdomb”, we paid special attention to Bronze Age landscape research near the site. During the documentary evaluation stage phase of the site we encountered some remarks that indicated that the geographical environment around the site had changed radically over a few decades, which would underline the idea that the archaeological landscape from the Bronze Age it was quite different from what we see today. The next step in our approach was to identify the historical maps that allow to be georeferenced, in order to determine the extent of the changes in the Crișul Repede course. After we discovered those maps we highlighted the banks of Crișul Repede river in relation to the tell. We use some maps, cadastral plan or ortophotographs from 1790, 1860, 1892, 1974, 1977, 1980 and 2012 to analyse the relation between the tell-settlement and Crișul Repede river. A number of maps, drawings or sketches, such as those of 1785, 1806, 1825, 1954 and 1980 were irrelevant for our study. As a result, we determined that the distance between tell-settlement and Crișul Repede north bank fluctuated in time from 80 m in 1860 to 0 m in 1974, and in 2012 it would reach 160 m. It is obvious that the reality around the Sântion tell-settlement in the Middle Bronze Age was quite different from a climatic point of view (vegetation, fauna, but especially pluvial regime and the Crișul Repede river discharge). In the absence of more acurate investigations dedicated to paleoenvironment (palynology, 14C data, and core drillings) it is impossible to reconstruct the landscape of the Bronze Age with more accuracy.

5. Florin GOGÂLTAN, Victor SAVA, Înainte de apariția mega-forturilor bronzului târziu de la Mureșul de Jos (2000/1900-1600/1500 BC)

Before the Emergence of the Late Bronze Mega-Forts in the Lower Mureș Basin (2000/1900-1600/1500 BC)

In the context in which our recent interest has focused on the Late Bronze Age mega fort in Sântana-Cetatea Veche, on the present occasion we wish to overview the settlements and metal items that are characteristic to the Middle Bronze from the Lower Mureș Basin (2000/1900-1600/1500 BC). The profound social transformations from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1500 BC) in the region of the Tisa and the Lower Mureș cannot be fully understood unless one turns back to earlier discoveries. We thus aim at identifying the possible connections between the world of the tells and the world that around 100 years later, after their disappearance, built the impressive fortified settlements. The older synthesis works have only been partially brought up to date. There is thus need for a synthetic presentation of the most important sites and metal items representative for the first half of the second millennium BC in this area.

6. FECHETE – PORSZTNER Kitti, Raport preliminar privind săpăturile arheologice preventive efectuate în Oradea – Salca/Pepinieră în perioada 2016-2017

Preliminary Report on the Preventive Achaeological Excavations Carried out in Oradea – Salca/Pepinieră in 2016 and 2017

The study presents the artefacts discovered following archeological excavations on site Salca/ Pepinieră between 2016-2017. Those artefacts comes from three periods. Most complexies could be dated in the first Iron Age, two ovens in the VII-IX centuries and some complexies in the Early Middle Age.

7. MIHÁLKA Nándor, Doru MARTA, Contribuţii arheologice la istoria medievală a Cetății Adrian, judeţul Bihor

Archaeological Contributions to the Medieval History of Adrian Fortress, Bihor County

In the summer of 2009, archaeological research was carried out at the Adrian fortress, located close to Sălard, on the right bank of the Barcău river. The evolution in time of the historic building was determined using a four-section division. Erected in the second half of the 13th century, the construction was first mentioned in 1285. In the first centuries it played a significant role in the political and economic life of the region, but after the 15th century this role was gradually lost and after the Peace of Vasvár, the construction was demolished by the Ottoman army in 1664. The research conducted and the examination of the wall faces showed that the appearance of the representative buildings changed gradually from Romanesque to Gothic and then, to Renaissance, as elements specific to these periods were used. The archaeological artefacts discovered includedlarge quantities of ceramics (12th‒13th centuries), Gothic and Renaissance stove tiles and architectonic fragments.

8. Diana BODEA, Florin GOGÂLTAN, Gruia FAZECAŞ, Aplicaţii GIS în studiul siturilor arheologice. Studiu de caz: situl arheologic Oradea–Salca “Pepinieră”

GIS Applications in the Study of Archaeological Sites. Case Study: Archaeological Site Oradea–Salca “Pepinieră”

Archeology is an interdisciplinary science that uses new technologies in order to streamline and simplify the way of managing the databases, but also to combine different data sources for a better analysis of the researched object. Among the sources that influence the distribution of the archaeological material are the geographical factor, given by the geological substrate, relief, climate and phytogeographical elements, which create and sculpt the daily life.The purpose of this article is to analyze the integration of data in the GIS software database and to analyze the distribution of archaeological materials from the site of Oradea – Salca “Pepinieră”.

9. Ioan CRIŞAN, Cercetarea arheologică a satului şi a târgului ca tipuri de aşezări din Bihorul medieval. Metode, realizări, priorităţi

Archaeological Research of the Village and the Borough as Types of Settlement in the Medieval Bihor. Methods, Achievements, Priorities

In the study of medieval settlements in multiple aspects, archaeological research has an increasingly important role. The author initiated the research of the village and the medieval borough at the border of Bihor County and a larger area on Crişuri having the support of the Criş County Museum from Oradea. The first steps in this approach were the location, repertoire and mapping of the sites of the medieval settlements. In parallel with the surface surveys, samplings and excavations were carried out in settlements located in different geographical units. In order to deepen the problems of the two types of medieval habitat, two neighboring sites from the Salonta Plain: Cefa-Intravilan and Cefa-La Pădure were studied. The results of the research conducted so far are arguments for further digging in both sites. In the depression of Beius, an intermountain geographic area still little known, the archaeological researches initiated were requested horizontally in order to identify the medieval and vertical in the Sânmartinu de Beiuş-La Piatra site. There were medieval settlements in Bihor, whose names defined the ethnicity of the inhabitants. Archaeological research would highlight the characteristic features of the material culture and the spiritual life of the inhabitants of different ethnicities.

10. Sorin ŞIPOŞ, Prolegomen to a history of Courage. Nobles from Bihor Serving the King (13th – 14th centuries)

The medieval world was structured on suzerainty-vassalage relations, which involve obligations framed within the already established formula of consilium et auxilium from the vassal’s part. The suzerain, in turn, was obliged to help their vassal when the latter was in need of support. The contractual relation had as basis the feudatory and the domain ceded by the suzerain to the vassals for the labour carried out. The good functioning of these relations was often put to the test by multiple causes, that not few times the suzerains were left by some of their vassals in critical moments, or, on the contrary, some vassals were not supported in the conflicts that started with some of their neighbors, which could directly reverberate on the aforementioned relations. In such a context, the vassals’ fidelity, when it proved itself exemplary, was remarked by the sovereigns, turning into an actual propaganda whose purpose was the glorification of bravery, courage and allegiance of the vassals towards the suzerains, as well as the wisdom and generosity of the latter for the labour carried out by the subjects. Obviously, the critical situations lived by the suzerains, some on the verge of losing their lives and throne, if they didn’t benefit from help, determined them to pay more attention to the services carried out by the vassals. Significant evidences of bravery are represented also by some exceptional situations or by some with profound significance in the unfolding of an armed conflict. At Codlea, Chak, Petru, Iacob and Benedict, sons of Chaz, serfs of the Bihor fortress, remained by Stephenn the 5th’s side when he was being besieged in the fortress, and Petru and Iacob “were faithfully on the lookout next to our person, day and night”. Also, the capturing of the commander of the enemy army represented without a doubt the pinnacle of courage, bravery and fidelity towards their own master. This is how the conquest of the Șinteu fortress took place, when Borsa Kopasz was caught, an important enemy of the king.

11. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO, La testimonianza di Tamás Nádasdy al processo per l’assassinio di Frate Giorgio Martinuzzi

The Testimony of Támás Nádasdy to the Trial on the Murder of Friar George Martinuzzi

Tamás Nádasdy, baron, great landowner, palatine of the Kingdom of Hungary, a man of vast culture, was one of the main accusers of the trial brought about by the Holy See against Ferdinand of Habsburg and his accomplices, defendants of the assassination of Cardinal George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics, better known as Friar George, which was perpetrated in the castle of Alvinc, now in Romania, at dawn on 17 December 1551. In this article the testimony given by Tamás Nádasdy in Sopron on 18 May 1553 in the presence of the apostolic nuncio to Vienna Girolamo Martinengo is transcribed and analyzed. During the interrogations, Nádasdy confirmed almost all the accusations against Friar George. However, his deposition was influenced by the feeling of hostility he felt towards the friar. He himself admitted that there had never been two greater enemies in this world than they themselves. At the base of this feeling of enmity is probably the fact that in 1534 Friar George had the direction of the Transylvanian salt mines taken away from him.

12. Corina TOMA, Tezaurul monetar descoperit la Groşi (jud. Bihor): studiu de caz privind datarea tezaurelor incomplete

The Coin Hoard Found at Groşi (Bihor County): a Case Study on Dating the Incomplete Hoards

In October 2018 a hoard of over 480 silver coins was found at Groși (Bihor county) and in short time the coins were brought to the Cris Country Museum. Although not all the coins have been cleaned yet, this article represents a response to the statements made by the archaeologists regarding the burial date of the hoard. This preliminary analysis is based upon the presence in the hoard of the Polish poltura (1 ½ grosz) issued by Sigismund III that helps us dating the hoard after the death of Gabriel Bethlen (November 1629). Due to the presence of the breiter Groschen (the grosz with the value of five denarii) issued by Bethlen, we could place the burial date of the hoard sometime between the fourth and sixth decade of the 17th century.

13. Florina CIURE, Informaţii despre Transilvania în Relazioni di Vittorie Delle Armi Cesaree Sopra Turchi (sfârşitul sec. XVII)

Information About Transylvania in Relazioni Di Vittorie Delle Armi Cesaree Sopra Turchi (End of the 17th Century)

National Library of St. Mark’s in Venice hosts a miscellany containing 84 opuscula entitled Reports of the Imperial armies victories over the Turks. At the second one there is a Description of the city and the fortress of Oradea, printed in Venice by Leonardo Pittoni, but not indicating the year of publication. Number 34 is a signed report on the conquests of Duke of Lorraine in Transylvania, published in Venice in 1687 and sold by Zuanne Batti in Saint Mark’s Square. Numbers 35, 40 and 43 are in fact the same report, also dedicated to the victories of Habsbourg army in Transylvania, but with more precise information about the city of Cluj-Napoca, published in the same year in Venice and sold by Zuanne Batti. The reports 38 and 46 are dedicated to the conquest of Lipova, the first one analysed the military confrontation during the year 1687, the second one the final victory of Count Caraffa. This last report was published in 1688 by the Venetian editor Leonardo Pittoni. Number 48 is a report about the victories of Habsbourg’s army under the leadership of general Heissler and the defeat of Emeric Thököly during the year 1688, sold by Zuanne Batti in Saint Mark’s Square. At number 67 there is A new and truthful report about the victories of the Habsburgs armies over the important castle of Beiuş, reprinted, In Vienna, & in Venice, 1690, stating that it’s been selling by [Giovanni] Batti in San Marco Square. The number 82 is dedicated to a distinctive Report on the settlement, domination, blockade, siege and conquest of the important town of Oradea… at 5 June 1692, published in the same year, at Venice by Girolamo Albrizzi. These reports present in detail the actions of Imperial armies against the Ottomans, culminating with the conquest of the main cities of Transylvania. By publishing this documents, the Habsbourgs intend to popularise the successes of the Imperial armies, that after the failed siege of Vienna (1683), entered in possesion of the territories of former Kingdom of Hungary holds by the Ottomans. This documents provides new evidences about a tumultuos period in the history of Transylvania in the seventeenth century. They attest, however, the level of knowledge of the realities of this part of Europe in Venice.

14. Călin GHEMIŞ, Constantin I. ZGARDAN, Oradea 1706-1710. Monedele blocadei

Oradea 1706-1710. Blocade Coins

The article aims to present a few currency of necessity/notgeld, issued in the period of Rakoczian war, known as Liberation War in hungarian literature. Started in 1703 the the conflict leaded by Francisc Rakoczi the II -nd, put the city of Oradea under an blockade until 1710. Due to its geopolitical and economical position Oradea was an important city for both of the beligerants: the Habsburgs and the Principate of Transilvania. In the period of Oradea blockade were issued some currencies, in the following years: 1706, 1707, 1708 and 1710, the last ones belonging to two tipes. The most common type have the averse containig the imperial cypher I (after Iosif I) with the imperial crown, and the year (1706, 1707, 1708, 1710) while the obverse contain the legend: IN/NECES/SITATE/VARADI/ENSI. Second type is represented by small coins of unifacies type, the averse contains the imperial cypher I, with crown and the letters GW (G(ross) W(ardein)). From an numismatic point of wiew these currencies ar not very beautiful but they are an important historical source for knowing the local events in the period of rakoczian war.

15. M. Marcella FERRACCIOLI, Gianfranco GIRAUDO, Due venturieri senza ventura in Madagascar Pierantonio Gratarol, Veneziano, e Maurycy August Beniowski, Polacco-Magiaro-Slovacco

Two Adventurers without Fortune in Madagascar Pierantonio Gratarol, Venetian, and Maurycy August Beniowski, Polish-Magyar-Slovak

Both characters are, each in their own way, well individualizable representatives of the 18th Century. Gratarol embodies the eighteenth century libertine, the one in which intellectual libertinism lives in comfortable symbiosis with the sexual one; Beniowski is one of those men who are always willing to rebel and to seek the elusive pleasure of the search for knowledge, as well as to present themselves as transnationals, especially in the art of the intrallazzo: a little Captain Cook, a little Casanova. Beniowski followed the fate that he himself had made to the most obvious of ends, death in battle; Gratarol is forced against his will to a metamorphosis from libertine to fugitive, a role he succeeds in interpreting with some success, thanks also to the knowledge accumulated in the previous phase of his life. If Beniowski’s death had assured him of posthumous glory, Gratarol’s is nothing more than an incident easily conceivable for an inexperienced traveler in inhospitable lands – from the tragic to the pathetic.

16. Augustin MUREŞAN, Sigilii comune ale unor localităţi rurale din comitatul Bihor (secolele XVIII-XIX). Opinii

Common Seals in Some Rural Communities in Bihor County (18th- th – 19th centuries). Opinions

The author presents common seals to the following villages in Bihor county: Ghighişeni and Voieni, Petrileni and Zăvoieni, Sârbeşti and Folteşti, Sitani and Turbureşti, Mărăuş and Stoineşti (XVIII th – XX th centuries). In such situations a single seal pattern was made which was used in both villages. Both villages that used the seal had their names engraved in the text accompanying the seals. This sphragistic phenomenon was explained by specialists in sigillography as a consequence of a common local leadership.

17. Viorel CÂMPEAN, Marta CORDEA, Trei scrisori ale generalului Pavel Papp de Popa

Three Unique Letters of General Pavel Papp de Popa

Our article enriches with three unique letters the information regarding the controversial personality of General Pavel Papp de Popa (born in Beznea on December 17, 1827 – died in Chiavari in December 1908). Considered a Kossuthist, then a fighter in the Turkish army, Pavel Papp also took part in the Crimean War, and later fought in the war for Italy’s independence, being appointed General Staff in 1895. It was decorated in 1898 with the “Crown of Italy” order, and in 1900 with the Gold Medal. Two of the letters, written in Hungarian, are sent from Italy to the priest Petru Pop and one, in Romanian, to a certain “Aurel”, surely a relative of his. The letters show us the general’s concern for the relatives left at home, whom he continued to support financially. From one of the letters, reproduced in the annex to our article, we learn that Pavel Papp de Popa had a brother named Mitrofan. Although General Pavel Pop de Popa erected a commemorative monument in 2006 in his hometown, his biography is so rich in events, it leaves many more questions unanswered. We hope that through our article some of them have been elucidated.

18. Mirela ANDREI-POPA, Rapoartele consilierului şcolar Pavel Vasici. Şcolile ortodoxe române din sud şi sud-estul Transilvaniei în anii liberalismului austriac

Reports of school counselor Pavel Vasici. Romanian Orthodox Schools in Southern and Southeastern Transylvania in the Years of Austrian Liberalism

The present study analyzes, starting from the two school reports (1860 and 1864) prepared by Pavel Vasici, as school governmental advisor for the Orthodox denominational education in Transylvania, the state of affairs, the material-logistical and moral situation in which the schools were located. Romanian Orthodox from southern and southeastern Transylvania in the years of Austrian liberalism. Pavel Vasici remarked that in the first years of the nineteenth decade of the nineteenth century, there was a setback of the Romanian Orthodox education compared to the years of neo-absolutism. In his vision, the solution to remove the deficiencies of the Romanian education from the Orthodox schools would have been the return to the collaboration between the church and the state on the school land, arguing through the example of the period of neo-absolutism, when the Romanian education registered the most progress, his observations gave a disagreement, generalized on this topic in the orthodox environment, tensions between the school counselor and the bishop Andrei Șaguna. On the other hand, the disastrous situation of the Orthodox confessional education, as it was presented in Vasici’s reports, alarmed the political authorities of the Grand Principality, who asked the Sibiu hierarch for explanations.

19. Răzvan MIHAI NEAGU, Personalităţi ale Marii Uniri: avocatul Ioan Vescan, primul prefect român al judeţului Mureş-Turda (1877-1946)

Personalities of the Great Union: Lawyer Ioan Vescan, the First Romanian Prefect of Mureş-Turda County (1877-1946)

The subject of this study is the life and activity of a lawyer, Ioan Vescan, a remarkable legal personality from Transylvania. He had a very good intellectual training. With the financial aid of Gojdu Foundation, Vescan chose to study law in Cluj (1897-1902). In 1903 he became doctor in law at the University of Cluj. Subsequently, Vescan opened a law firm in Teaca. He was active in Romanian national movement from Transylvania, fighting with all legal means for the rights of his countrymen. During the First World War, Ioan Vescan fought on the front in Galicia, remarking himself as a organizer of the Transylvanian Romanian Volunteer Corp. After the Great Union, The Ruling Council of Transylvania appointed Ioan Vescan prefect of Mureş-Turda county, being the first Romanian to hold this post. He had three prefect mandates (1919-1920; 1928-1931; 1932-1933). In the interwar period, Ioan Vescan also was senator in the Romanian Parliament between 1922-1926 and deputy between 1937-1938.

20. Radu MILIAN, Aspecte ale reorganizării învăţământului românesc din Bihor în contextul Marii Uniri

Aspects of the Reorganization of Romanian Education in Bihor in the Context of the Great Union

After the outbreak of the First World War, and especially after Romania’s entry into war, the situation of Romanian education in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy deteriorated significantly. Increasing political pressures are also being added to endowment and staffing issues. The end of the war does not solve the problems of economic and personnel nature, but brings official recognition of the Romanian language as a teaching language to the Romanian schools. After the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the unification of Transylvania with Romania, a process of reorganization on the national basis of the Romanian education in Bihor begins. The process takes place gradually, during the years 1921-1924, until full integration into the integrated school system of the Romanian kingdom.

21. Mihai D. DRECIN, Raluca LENARTH, Refugiul românilor din teritoriul ocupat în anii Primului Război Mondial. Studiu de caz: Familia Partenie Cosma în Italia (toamna 1917-toamna 1919)

The Refuge of the Romanians from the Occupied Territory During WWI. Case Study: Partenie Cosma’s Family in Italy (Fall 1917-Fall 1919)

The study examines a special case of the life of a family belonging to the major elite of the Romanian nation in Transylvania, refugees from Transylvania in Romania in spring 1915. It is about Partenie Cosma, director of „Albina” Bank in Sibiu, the oldest and most important credit institution of the Romanians in Austria-Hungary (founded in 1871). Partenie Cosma’s relationships with the political elite of the Kingdom of Romania, both economically and politically, have allowed him to know, even before August 1916, Bucharest’s entry into World War on the side of the Entente. In that situation, the leaders of the Transylvanian Romanians risked being arrested by the authorities in Budapest that could block the Transylvanian Romanians’ involvement who were decided to target the Kingdom of Romania – the Romanian union and formation of the unitary state. Being old and sick, Partenie Cosma retiresand stays in 1915 at the holiday villa in Caciulata – Calimanesti (Romania), on the Olt Valley, just a few dozen kilometers from Sibiu. When in autumn 1916 the Central Powers reject the Romanian Army offensive in Transylvania, then engaged Oltenia, Muntenia and Dobrogea, the Cosma family retreats in Iasi, in the free territory of Romania. From here, through Russia, Finland, Norway, Britain and France – took refuge in Italy. His daughter, Hortensia Cosma – Goga was married since 1906 with the Transylvanian politician Octavian Goga, an old miltant for the unification of Transylvania with Romania. From Hortensia’s letters to her husband who was in Paris, the Romanian diplomacy circles advocating for the approval of the Romanian territories union that were under foreign rule in Romania (Transylvania, Basarabia and Bucovina) we have a very accurate and interesting radiograph of the political life in Italy. This was tormented by Italian-Romanian, Italian-Serbian, Italian-Bulgarian, American and French interests on the future of Romania. The advice Hortensia gives to her husband who was in Paris, along with her work done in favor of the idea of national unity of the Romanians reveals exceptional diplomatic skills, with strong patriotism that it offers. Partenie Cosma family returns to Sibiu, to a whole new unified Romania in autumn 1919, with the satisfaction of accomplishment of the Romanian national ideal to which they greatly contributed.

22. Doina-Gabriela ANANIE, Memento Ovidiu Drimba

Memento Ovidiu Drimba

Ovidiu Drimba proved, even from an early age, with his first articles published in Rânduri and Țara Visurilor Noastre magazines, his indisputable talent, the ability to synthesize, and a solid knowledge. The assistant of Lucian Blaga at the philosophy department of the University Ferdinand I from Cluj, then lecturer and professor at the Caragiale Academy of Theatrical Arts and Cinematography from Bucharest, and lecturer at the Romanian Institute of Torino University, Ovidiu Drimba has left its mark on the generations of students he formed. His monumental work, The History of Culture and Civilization, that leads us to the thought of the „homo universalis”, with its 13 volumes, remains the only one of its kind in Romanian culture.

23. Florentina BARTA, Aspecte privind activitatea Cercului de Istorie de la Liceul „Emanuil Gojdu” din Oradea, coordonat de prof. Titus Roşu

Aspects on the activity of the History Circle from the “Emanuil Gojdu” High School from Oradea, Coordinated by prof. Titus Roşu

Since the end of the decade, six years of the past century the activity of the “Gojdu” History Circle has intensified, its achievements being recorded in the four minutes of records that are kept in the manuscript in the „Golden Book” of the college. The activity of study and research was interwoven with the good will in the educational and scientific trips organized. The students applied the knowledge accumulated during the hours of history and at the same time came into direct contact with the vestiges, deepening the knowledge and understanding better the phenomena, the historical processes and the evolution of the human society. At the same time, the researches contributed to the knowledge of local history, especially through the materials they discovered together with Professor Titus Roşu. This work tries to bring to light a series of activities of this circle of history.

24. Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞ, Papa Pius al XII-lea, decretul de condamnare a comunismului şi Patriarhul Justinian Marina în atenţia diplomaţiei italiene

Pope Pius XII, the Decree against communism and Patriarch Justinian Marina in the Mirror of the Italian Diplomacy

The present study aims to comment the position of the Romanian Orthodox Church on the Pontifical Decree against Communism in the summer of 1949, a position expressed by the voice of Patriarch Justinian Marina in the opening speech of the politicized courses of missionary guidance for priests organized in August 1949 in Bucharest. The analysis is made from the perspective of the reactions that the Pontifical condemnation has sparked on both sides of the Iron Curtain, particularly through the prism of the channels of diplomatic communication, and wishes to bring into question both the motivations and the religious and political consequences of this act, especially following the evolution of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the late 1940s and its relations with the regime of Stalinist inspiration established in Bucharest.

25. Cristian CULICIU, Contribuţii la cunoaşterea activităţii Uniunii Tineretului Comunist din Oradea. Acţiuni culturale şi recreative (1968-1972)

Contributions on the Activity of the Oradea branch of the Union of Communist Youth. Cultural and Recreational Actions (1968-1972)

In communist Romania, young people, students, were obliged to be part of the Union of the Communist Youth. The organization was founded in 1922 after the Soviet model, but only after 1944 functioned at it’s “normal” capacity. It had local brances in every town and commune, also in factories, schools and public institutions. Oradea also had a local branch (a city/municipal committee) and tens of other organizations in the “economical units”. They were organizing many types of activities, from those related to the workplace to cultural and recreational ones. In this paper, we will see some examples from the cultural area, structured in a few categories. Both the occasions and artistic groups formed by the young ones are talked about, and also sports competitions and trips in which they took part in. We analised a small period, from 1968 to 1972, considered to be a more “liberal” part of the communist era in Romania.

26. Gabriel MOISA, Despre amorsarea evenimentelor din decembrie 1989 din România

About the Beginning of the Events from December 1989 from România

The paper presents examples of how throughout 1989 the events of 1989 were initiated in Romania, including through broadcasts from outside Romania. Most come with the coverage of a journalist, but in parallel they try to detect the mood of the population, its shortcomings, the possibilities of revolt so that, under certain conditions, it is willing to actively participate in the overthrow of the communist regime. The phenomenon detected in Bihor was quite present in the last months of 1989. The situation was increasingly complicated internationally with repercussions internally. Certainly this phenomenon was also related to what was to come in December 1989.

27. Ronald HOCHHAUSER, Colecţia Muzeului Ţării Crişurilor de aparate de muzică mecanică

Mechanical Musical Instruments from the Collection of the “Ţării Crişurilor” Museum

According to the records from the inventory registry book of the History Section, the collection of mechanical musical instruments was set up before 1965. One of the first devices of the kind that became part of the “Crișana Regional Museum” patrimony (that was the name of the cultural institution in that period) was the Herophon organette produced at the famous “Euphonika” Factory of Musical Instruments in Leipzig, on the territory of the German Empire (Germany Today). At present, the series based on the “old collection” is made up mainly of instruments purchased from various people, as well as of instruments confiscated by the customs authorities in Bors, Bihor County, and then transferred to the county museum. There is only one donation, an automatic recorder, classified in the category “Thesaurus” of the national cultural patrimony. Thus, the museum hosts at present a number of twenty-three musical automata and devices for recording and reproducing sound that were manufactured between approximately 1882 and 1951: three organettes of different types, two street organs, an Edison Standard phonograph, a table polyphon, a euphonion music box with a record collection, a symphonion music box with a record collection, an orchestron, four gramophones, eight table, portable or suitcase pathephones and a mini portable pathephone. All these are filed in the informatics programme for movable cultural patrimony.