Crisia 2018, XLVIII

1. Florin GOGÂLTAN

Despre cronologia așezărilor multistratificate ale epocii bronzului din Bazinul Carpatic. O privire retrospectivă a ultimilor 15 ani.

About the chronology of the multi-layered settlements of the Bronze Age in the Carpathian Basin. A retrospective of the last 15 years.

Fifteen years ago, during an Alexander von Humboldt fellowship at the Institut für Prähistorische Archäologie, Freie Universität Berlin I have put together a catalogue of Early Bronze Age (EBA) and Middle Bronze Age (MBA) multi-stratified settlements in the Carpathian Basin (c. 2500-1600/1500 BC). A total of 188 multi-stratified sites (Fig. 1) ascribed to five horizons were placed in chronological order (Fig. 2). The new AMS data have substantially modified the relative chronology of this period (Fig. 3). The present paper only comprises the recent information regarding the chronology of the tell and tell-like settlements in the Carpathian Basin. An English version of this article will appear, hopefully within a reasonable time, in a volume titled Reinecke´s Erbe. Terminologie, Chronologie und Identität in Mitteleuropa zwischen 2300 und 1600 v.Chr. Reinecke´s Heritage. Terminology, Chronology and Identity in Central Europe between 2300 and 1600 BC.


2. Gruia FAZECAȘ, Marian LIE

Determinarea suprafeței sitului arheologic de epoca bronzului de la Toboliu – Dâmbu Zănăcanului

Area delineation of the Bronze Age site from Toboliu “Dâmbu Zănăcanului”

The importance of archaeological field walks is undisputable, with an significant role in discovering and mapping new sites, but also in investigating other aspects in known sites, such as habitation density and extent. Several types of systematic field walks were applied, some yielding notable results. In the current paper, we present a systematic field walk method applied in the Middle Bronze Age site Toboliu Dâmbul Zănăcanului, located in Bihor County. Although the size and shape of the central part of the site, consisting of a tell, is rather clear, the dimensions of the outer settlement are more problematic. Previous field walks suggested that the surface inhabited by the Bronze Age communities is considerable. In order to establish the actual dimensions of the outer settlement, the authors of this study conducted a systematic field walk in March 2015, using a improvised method: with a hand GPS, all archaeological finds encountered on predefined parallel paths (10 m apart) were marked on a map, as black (isolated finds), yellow (clusters), or red dots (clusters and adobe). The surface covered by red and yellow dots is more likely to give a more accurate image of the surface inhabited by the Bronze Age communities, covering around 85 ha. However, it probably reflects periodic shifts of inhabited areas over the three centuries, rather that a large, contemporaneous settlement. In regards to the landscape, it is noticeable that the lower area located on the western and south-western side was avoided, as it was probably marshy in prehistoric times.


3. Gruia FAZECAȘ, Florin GOGÂLTAN

Situl aparținând epocii bronzului de la Diosig “Colonie”. O reevaluare

Bronze Age Site from Diosig “Colonie”. An appraisal

The first archaeological discoveries in the Diosig area occur at the end of the XIXth century. Since then, were discovered artifacts and archaeological sites belonging to the Neolithic, Bronze Age and to the II-Ist century B.C. period around Diosig ( Pl. I). The first notes about the site from Diosig “Colonie” are made by I. Ordentlich. He mentions a settlement belonging to the first and second phases of Otomani culture. The level of the Otomani II phase was disturbed by a inhumated tomb of a child, which had as inventory two vessels assigned to the Otomani III phase. From then on, until the time of this article, a series of papers and studies include references to this site without even knowing the location of the site, sometimes mixing the tomb inventory with disparate and accidental discoveries – supposedly coming from other graves. In 2015 a local citizen informed us about the discovery of some Bronze Age pottery fragments discovered during the exploitation of yellow clay in Diosig “Colonie” site (Pl. II). On site we discovered two features, partially affected by yellow clay exploitation and erosion: G1/2015 (pl III-IV) and G2/2015 (Pl. V, VI/6-10). Along with the ceramics, the pits contained bones, ash, charcoal, adobe fragments. The pottery fragments are attributed the Otomani II ceramic style. Chronologically, it can be attributed to the middle bronze II (Central European Bronze A2), which corresponds in absolute chronology to a time sequence somewhere approximately 1900 to 1700 BC. As the features inventory shows, they seem to be used as refuse pits. In October 2018, during a field survey around Diosig we tried to identify a site mentioned in the National Archaeological Register (= R.A.N.) (Fig. 5), without being certain that the area which we surveyed is the same as the one is mentioned with the R.A.N. code no. 29109.01. Nevertheless, around of an old island of Ier river we discovered pottery fragments from the Bronze Age and La Tène period, with the black lead in composition (Pl. VI/1-5).


4. Doru MARTA, Gruia FAZECAȘ

Note pe marginea câmpului de movile de la Cheţ – Buduslău (judeţul Bihor)

Some additions concerning mounds field from Cheț – Buduslău

According to the regulatory provisions General Urbanisme Plan (= P.U.G.) of the commune must be updated periodically. In this context, Buduslau commune which is located in the north-eastern part of Bihor County, has been the subject of a field survey in the spring of 2018. In the older bibliography there were mentioned “near the locality several large tumuli belonging to an unspecified age”. On this circumstances we identified six earth mounds. Due to the proximity to the previously identified mounds field at Cheț, we believe that the six newly identified mounds are part of the same group. The mounds, with different sizes and degrees of preservation are likely to be tumuli, a fact that can be confirmed only after archaeological excavations, especially in the case of the mound conventionally called M1 by us (or Movila Vupei = Fox Mound on older maps) and the one named by the local inhabitants of Chet „Holmul Chețului”.


5. Cristian Ioan POPA

Statuetele cu capetele bifurcate din ariile Gáva Gornea-Kalakaca şi Basarabi

Statuets with two heads in Gáva, Gornea-Kalakača and Basarabi areas

Anthropomorphic plastic art at the end of the Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age is still little known. In this paper is brought to attention a statuette placed at the bottom of a cult pit from Teleac, belonging to the Gáva II (Hallstatt B) phase. The artifact has an elongated shape, oval in kerf, with two, bifurcated heads. Similar statues have been found in Gáva cultural area, especially in Şimleul Silvaniei surroundings. Identical artifacts to that of Teleac are also known in Gornea-Kalakača and Basarabi features. If some authors consider them „reel”, we appreciate these as anthropomorphic statuettes, showing the legs and hands schematically, with a history in some cultures of the Bronze Age (Tei, Wietenberg, Noua. Similarities are also found in the plastic of Babadag culture. The artifacts presented in this paper expresses the last type of anthropomorphic representation of the Carpathian populations before the arrival of a new style – the steppe art.


6. Ioan CRIȘAN, Sorin BULZAN

Cercetări arheologice preventive din anul 2016 pe dealul promontor de la Oradea

The Preventive Archeological Research on the Promontor Hill in Oradea In 2016

In the month of May 2016, at number 11 Cantonului Street, they have initiated the procedures for the approval of the construction of a block of flats. The point in which they were to carry out the works was located on the right bank of the Crişul Repede River at a distance of 100 m towards the north, at 165 m altitude. As the perimeter checked by the work was to be located near the site of the premonstratense monastery sacred to the proto-martyr St. Stefan, founded by King Stefan II (1116-1131), the excavation works for the foundation of the construction have been under surveillance, and then under preventive archeological diggings. They discovered and investigated nine graves dated in the 12th -16th centuries, covering the period of existence of a monastic complex in the area. The distribution of the graves shows that they were located on the western side of the cemetery, and that the building of the church was to the east of the parcel been concerned by the constructors.


7. Sorin BULZAN

Locuirile dintre ape. Noi cercetări de suprafaţă în teritoriul comunei Sântandrei

New Archaeological Survey in the Sântandrei Commune Bihor County, Romania

Situated on the middle flow of river Crișul Repede, Sântandrei commune lies at seven kilometers west of Oradea in the north-west part of Romania not far from Romanian-Hungarian border. The relief is dominated by plain and in the northern part by many old meanders and the bends of river Crișul Repede and Peța rivulet. The past human habitation could be named a living between the waters. The administrative territory of this commune knows in the last years a boom of real estate sector and some archaeological sites must be delimited and protected. The archaeological survey was made for the elaboration of urban plan of the commune. The territory of the Sântandrei commune was also surveyed in past, but this new research brought to light new archaeological sites. As we know in this moment the human habitation begin in the middle Neolithic age with a settlement newly discovered at the place called” Lanu Botului” and continued with an destroyed settlement by flooding Criș River from which we knows just some sherds (see the note 4). To the bronze age can belong some discoveries at the place”Podul Moii” (early bronze age, Coțofeni culture), the Otomani faze I-III culture settlement from ”Palota Veche” and those from ”Descheșa” which can be dated bronze D – Hallstatt A1 stage. In the Latene period old discoveries belog to the Celts at ”Podu Moii” and to the Dacians later in D stage from „Pepinieră” and ”Broscărie” settlement. The vestern part of Romania were the Sântandrei commune lies was left in Barbaricum by the Romans. Beside of the discoveries made by Sever Dumitrașcu and Ioan Crișan in sixties and eithies years of XX century at the place ”Fizeșul Palotei”, in the new survey was discovered a new settlement north of the ”Grajdurile C.A.P” (the stalls of the former farm) also dated in the 3-4 century A.D. In the middle age, beginning with the 8-10 century, the left bank of the Crișul Repede river was densely inhabited even only isolated findings are known at ”La Pepinieră” and ”Criș” places (settlements) and in an unknown place, a presumed inhumation grave. The foremost problem of this early medieval period rise from literature, an article of Maria Comșa in which is supposed the existence of a Slavian tumuli necropolis (see the note 17). Even I visited the presumable tumuli, without other researches I was unable to propose a solution for the nature and the dating of these mounds. Beginning with the 13th century the villages in the commune’s territory start to be mentioned in documents. The existence of some of them since the 12th century, if not earlier, is confirmed by archaeological discoveries. Some settlements have disappeared since the middle Ages but their names have been preserved as place names in Austrian maps. The first village mentioned in the medieval documents is Vadasz in 1214. I discover the remains of this settlement at the place called ”Criș” close to the bends of river Crişul Repede in the north-west of the commune’s territory. But at some moment maybe in the 14 century a part of the population was moved in the own territory of the village a fact which explain the presence of the name ”Vadasz Pusta” in other place in an old map. The medieval Palota village appears in documents since 1279 under the name Deerspalataya castrum. The name of the settlement was preserved in the place memory and the archaeological material confirms the tradition. The most complex situation has even the village of Sântandrei mentioned in 1291. The archaeological site called „Râturi” could be the missing Megyes village for which is first time mentioned in documents at 1329.


8. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO

La fine della missione in Transilvania del generale Giovanni Battista Castaldo. 1552–53

The End of General John Baptist Castaldo’s Task in Transylvania. 1552–53

In 1551, Transylvania was occupied by the Habsburg army of General John Baptist Castaldo. The Transylvanians accepted submission to the House of Austria, Queen Isabella Jagiellon and Prince John Sigismund Szapolyai were forced into exile first in Kassa, then in Silesia and Poland. The government of General Castaldo was not well accepted by the Transylvanian people, mainly because of the wickedness of his mercenaries, who caused dissatisfaction with King Ferdinand of Habsburg himself, responsible for the arrogance of the German soldiers, to whom the Transylvanians ended even by preferring the Ottoman domination. Castaldo was also worried about the chronic lack of money to pay his soldiers, who often rebelled, and felt continually threatened by a possible Turkish attack to Transylvania. The Turks instead attacked Hungary saving Transylvania. Nevertheless, the Transylvanian lords began to plot for the return of Prince John Sigismund. Castaldo, unable to calm the discontent of both people and lords, as well as the restlessness of his mercenaries, eventually sought refuge in the flight from Transylvania, which he abandoned in the spring of 1553, bearing the suspicion of having enriched himself with the treasure of friar George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics, whom he had got killed by order of King Ferdinand in December 1551.


9. Florina CIURE

Cucerirea Oradiei de către imperiali (1692) într-un izvor veneţian contemporan

The Conquest of Oradea by the Habsburgs (1692) in a Contemporary Venetian Source

National Library of St. Mark’s in Venice hosts a miscellany containing 84 opuscula entitled Reports of the Imperial armies victories over the Turks. At the second one there is a Description of the city and the fortress of Oradea, printed in Venice by Leonardo Pittoni, but not indicating the year of publication, and at number 67 there is A new and truthful report about the victories of the Habsburgs armies over the important castle of Beiuş near Oradea under the command of Mr. Count Corbelli. With a record of the victories, conquered towns, the Turks made slaves, and the number of cannons captured in this war, reprinted, In Vienna, & in Venice, 1690, stating that it’s been selling by [Giovanni] Batti in San Marco Square. The number 82 is dedicated to a distinctive Report on the settlement, domination, blockade, siege and conquest of the important town of Oradea at the borders of the Upper Hungary and the Transylvania, conquered by imperial armies at 5 June 1692, published in the same year, at Venice by Girolamo Albrizzi. This raport resume in the first section the describing information from the second opuscula, which presents the settlement, the inhabitants and the important events that marked the history of this city: references to the three districts of Oradea, its cathedral which housed the remains of the two kings, Ladislau and Sigismund of Luxemburg, the actions of the Calvinists, the unsuccessful siege by the Ottomans in 1598, the fall of Oradea in the hands of the Ottomans in 1660, and the final part is dedicated to the actions of Imperial Armies starting in 1691 and culminating with the final siege of the city in 1692, which is presented in detail.


10. Blaga MIHOC

Despre măsurile luate de Maria Tereza şi Iosif al II-lea împotriva „cerşetorilor”, în contextul modernizării Imperiului Habsburgic

About the Measures Taken by Maria Theresa and Joseph II Against Beggars in the Context of Modernization of the Habsburg Empire

National Library of St. Mark’s in Venice hosts a miscellany containing 84 opuscula entitled Reports of the Imperial armies victories over the Turks. At the second one there is a Description of the city and the fortress of Oradea, printed in Venice by Leonardo Pittoni, but not indicating the year of publication, and at number 67 there is A new and truthful report about the victories of the Habsburgs armies over the important castle of Beiuş near Oradea under the command of Mr. Count Corbelli. With a record of the victories, conquered towns, the Turks made slaves, and the number of cannons captured in this war, reprinted, In Vienna, & in Venice, 1690, stating that it’s been selling by [Giovanni] Batti in San Marco Square. The number 82 is dedicated to a distinctive Report on the settlement, domination, blockade, siege and conquest of the important town of Oradea at the borders of the Upper Hungary and the Transylvania, conquered by imperial armies at 5 June 1692, published in the same year, at Venice by Girolamo Albrizzi. This raport resume in the first section the describing information from the second opuscula, which presents the settlement, the inhabitants and the important events that marked the history of this city: references to the three districts of Oradea, its cathedral which housed the remains of the two kings, Ladislau and Sigismund of Luxemburg, the actions of the Calvinists, the unsuccessful siege by the Ottomans in 1598, the fall of Oradea in the hands of the Ottomans in 1660, and the final part is dedicated to the actions of Imperial Armies starting in 1691 and culminating with the final siege of the city in 1692, which is presented in detail.


11. M. Marcella FERRACCIOLI, Gianfranco GIRAUDO

I fratelli Sebastiani tra diplomazia ed esilio

The Sebastiani Brothers Between Diplomacy and Exile

Paolo and Giuseppe Sebastiani, Armenian Catholics from Constantinople, persecuted because of their faith, or financial problems, obtain asylum in Rome. A tournant in the history of the Sebastiani Family is represented by the affaire Dusoglu, born as a financial scandal and ended in tragedy. It is the alleged disappearance of a huge sum escaped from the confiscation of the assets of the Dus Oglu which becomes an indictment, one of many, from which the Sebastiani brothers are forced to defend themselves against real or alleged slanderers and judicial inquiries. After their arrival in Rome the Sebastiani brothers present themselves as poor Delegates of a poor nation in order to be able to deal with “affairs of religion”. A grant is granted, but evidently to a much lower extent than would have been expected, as well as limited to a very short period of time.


12. Augustin MUREȘAN

Sigiliile cu scena învierii lui Iisus Hristos ale localităţii Ostern (azi Comloşu Mic), judeţul Timiş

Resurrection of Jesus Christ Scene on the Seals of Ostern (Comloşu Mic), Timiş County

The author presents three seals of the village of Ostern (Comloşu Mic), Torontal County. The first seal (28 mm x 25 mm) is applied in red wax on a document from 1787. The second seal (31 mm x 25 mm) is applied in red wax on a document from 1834. The third one (30 mm x 28 mm) is made of metal (brass) and etched into an incision. The focus of the emblem is the scene of Jesus Christ’s Resurrection – his raising from the grave. Jesus, with a circle of light round his head, is holding a flag, with a cross on the banner, in his right hand. His left hand is lying on his chest while he is rising from thegrave; the tombstone engraved with a Latin cross, was removed. The seals have a religious character in their composition. The inclusion of Jesus Christ on the emblems of the three seals is a testimony and a reminder of the name of the village.


13. Mihai GEORGIȚĂ

Ecouri ale Revoluţiei polone din 1830-1831 în Ardeal, Banat şi Crişana

Echoes of the Polish Revolution from 1830-1831 in Transylvania, Banat and Bihor County

Through the peace of Vienna in 1815, the Czarist Russia receives a large part of Poland. If, at the beginning, Russia grants a broad autonomy to the Poles, after 1820 they have some freedom, and after the movements of the intellectual bourgeoisie, supported by the middle nobility, for the reconstruction of an independent Polish state, the Czar decides the rusification of Poland. That is why, on November 21, 1830, when the Czar ordered the Polish army to support the Dutch against the Belgians, the Warsaw regiments and students triggered the revolution, which spread rapidly in all provinces, proclaiming independence on January 25, 1831. Apart from the Pope, no European state responded to the Polish leaders’ appeals to support their cause. On the contrary, Prussia and Austria, which owned parts of the old Polish kingdom, took action against this revolutionary movement. In this context, Bihor and other neighboring counties have adopted resolutions supporting the cause of Poland, while the imperial army takes drastic measures against emigrants.


14. Călin GHEMIȘ

Tezaurul aparţinând sfârşitului epocii bronzului descoperit la Oradea în anul 1911 – precizări documentare

The Late Bronze Age Gold Hoard discovered at Oradea in 1911 – documentary aspects

Through the peace of Vienna in 1815, the Czarist Russia receives a large part of Poland. If, at the beginning, Russia grants a broad autonomy to the Poles, after 1820 they have some freedom, and after the movements of the intellectual bourgeoisie, supported by the middle nobility, for the reconstruction of an independent Polish state, the Czar decides the rusification of Poland. That is why, on November 21, 1830, when the Czar ordered the Polish army to support the Dutch against the Belgians, the Warsaw regiments and students triggered the revolution, which spread rapidly in all provinces, proclaiming independence on January 25, 1831. Apart from the Pope, no European state responded to the Polish leaders’ appeals to support their cause. On the contrary, Prussia and Austria, which owned parts of the old Polish kingdom, took action against this revolutionary movement. In this context, Bihor and other neighboring counties have adopted resolutions supporting the cause of Poland, while the imperial army takes drastic measures against emigrants.


15. Răzvan Mihai NEAGU

Consideraţii privind viaţa şi activitatea preotesei Lucreţia Mureşan (1875-1946)

Considerations Regarding the Life and Activity of the Priestess Lucreţia Mureşan (1875-1946)

Lucreţia Mureşan was one of the most remarkable female characters in the history of Turda. Her life and activity were intermingled with her husband’s, Iovian Mureşan, the most important Orthodox protopope of Turda. Lucretia Mureşan was original from Ţara Bârsei and came in Turda in 1901, when her husband became protopope of Turda. She distinguished herself through the charity she coordinated during World War I, when together with other ladies from Turda, she organised many charity actions in the hospitals for the wounded. Lucreţia Mureşan was the president of the Romanian Ladies Society in Turda both before and after the war. She was energetical, being very much involved in the social actions in Turda, promoting Christian values and the Romanian culture.


16. Luminița POPESCU

Solidaritate şi caritate la româncele din Ungaria în anii Marelui Război

Solidarity and Charity in the Romanians at Hungary in the Years of the Great War

This article focuses on reconstituting the history of World War I from the perspective of the home front. As a general outlook it surprises the feminine history of the Great War but focuses in particular on the activity of the Romanian women meetings in Hungary between 1914-1918. Starting from sources such as the press of the time, activity reports, yearbooks, archive funds of the feminine meetings, we found three main lines of action in supporting war effort: helping the families of soldiers left on the front, helping soldiers on the field struggle and the activity of charity sisters. Regarding the help given to the families left at home, it focused mainly on meeting the special needs caused by the increase in the number of widows and orphans. In this respect, one of the main charitable activities of women’s meetings was the building of orphanages, which will continue after the war. In order to help soldiers on the front, women in Transylvania organized collections consisting of cigarettes and books in Romanian. Another category of soldiers who benefited directly from the help provided by Romanian women were those hospitalized in the Transylvanian hospitals where a significant number of Romanians functioned as charity sisters. Subsequently, they were decorated by the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, or by the Romanian State. Another aspect that I have dealt with in this article concerns the possible inter-ethnic or inter-confessional collaborations that existed between the meetings of women working in Transylvania and, last but not least, the structure of the report of the Romanian women meetings with the Hungarian authorities according to the political and military evolution of the Great War.


17. Augustin MUREŞAN, Ioan CRIŞAN

Drapelul reconstituit al Gărzii Naţionale Române din Cefa (judeţul Bihor)

The Reconstituted Flag of the Romanian National Guard of Cefa (Bihor County)

The authors present the reconstituted flag of the Romanian National Guard from the commune Cefa, the county of Bihor, formed on the November 1918.The flag was made of linen orsill and had a rectangular shape. The colours were set perpendicularly on the pole, that is horizontaly, with in the upper part, the yellow in the middle and the red in the lower part. On both sides of the flag were written in golden italics, on three lines the following words: on the blue band GUARD, on the yellow one ROMANIAN NATIONAL and on the red one FROM CEFA. This inscription of the flag individualizes from the other flags used and confers it the quality of a military flag.


18. Laurențiu-Ștefan SZEMKOVICS

Distincţii onorifice acordate clerului român în 1918

Honorary Distinctions Granted to the Romanian Clergy in 1918

In the present article, the author points out, by means of phaleristics, heraldry and sigillography, eight honorary distinctions awarded to Romanian clergymen for special deeds accomplished during the First World War: The Military Order “Mihai Viteazul”; The Order “Star of Romania” (“Steaua României”); The Order “Crown of Romania” („Coroana României”); The Order “Queen Mary Cross” (“Crucea Regina Maria”); The Cross „The Sanitary Merit”; The Cross of War (French); The Order “Saint Anna” (Russian); The Order “Saint Stanislas” (Russian). These distinctions are preserved in funds and collections of the National History Museum of Romania, the Romanian Gendarmerie Museum and the collection belonging to Chief adjutant N.C.O. (reservist) Nelu Aldea. The distinctions have been presented considering first and foremost the Regulation for the order in which medals should be worn (published in “Monitorul Oficial” no. 222 from 29 January 1920), with the Romanian ones first followed by the foreign ones, presented in alphabetical order of the origin country. The authors mentioned, from one case to another, the institutions where the pieces are located and where they were researched the pieces and described them considering the scientific norms of heraldry and recommendations of the former International Committee of Sigillography. The information presented included: their issue date, the persons that were decorated, the reasons of awarding them, sometimes the accompanying documents, the normative acts through which they were awarded, reproductions of the pieces, and the necessary bibliography.


19. Gabriel MOISA

Contribuţii la istoria Partidul Comunist din România interbelică. Organizaţia Judeţeană Bihor

Contributions to the History of the Communist Party of Romania in the Interwar Period. Bihor County Organization

Bihor County was one of the counties in which the communist activity was quite visible in the interwar period. The Communist organization here was, in many ways, the turning point of the Soviet capital infusion into the communist movement in Romania. Several important leaders of the Communist movement such as Eugen Rozvany, Breiner Béla or younger Szenkovitz Sándor (Alexandru Sencovici) and Mogyorós Sándor (Alexandru Moghioros) acted here. The Communist Party of Romania, the Bihor County Organization, was a political structure overwhelmingly dominated by the members of the Hungarian and Jewish communities. They made the law in the organization, and if someone disagreed with its conduct, it was quickly shot dead. This is also the case of Eugen Rozvany, who, when he had a different position from the local Communists in connection with the „self-determination of the peoples of imperial Romania”, he supported the idea of the Romanian national state, was unmasked out of the party momentarily whose fate was sealed.


20. Cristian CULICIU

Activitatea politico-ideologică a „oamenilor muncii” în Oradea (1970-1989). Contribuții documentare

The Political and Ideological Activity of the Working Class in Oradea Between 1970 and 1989. Documentary Contributions

The “working class” represents the main human element of socialism. Any communist regime is based on a (wanna be) solid number of workers, as well as farmers. In communist Romania, education, at any forms, was ruled by ideology, so pupils, students and any whom participated in a form of education was to know and follow many sorts of propaganda. The working class followed, in that period, both literacy and propaganda courses. These kinds of courses were held at the “Intercounty Party School” and in factories and institutions. Participation was mandatory for some of them, where political, historical and economical subjects were discussed.


21. Gabriel MOISA

Despre „beneficiile” regimului comunist în judeţul Bihor: supraveghere şi control

About the “Benefits” of the Communist Regime in Bihor County: Surveillance and Control

Under the conditions of the totalitarian state, Bihor, like the whole country, has always lived in a supervised space. In this respect, specific institutions have been created. The most important was the Securitate, which over time had several names and technical subordinations. On 28 August 1948, the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly adopted Decree no. 221 on the establishment and organization of the General Directorate of People’s Security. The decree was published in the Official Gazette on 30 August 1948. It is the birth certificate of the police state. The present paper records a phenomenon present throughout the country, the supervision and almost total control of the society. The examples provided here fully demonstrate this reality.