Crisia 2017, XLVII

1. Gruia FAZECAŞ, Cristina Elena CORDOŞ, Marian LIE, O aşezare neolitică inedită descoperită la Şişterea „Bangeta”, com. Cetariu, jud. Bihor

Late Neolithic Settlement discovered at Şişterea „Bangeta”, com. Cetariu, Bihor county

In the late summer of 2017 we identified on Google Earth maps a structure which we supposed that is the result of human activity in the past. After examining the Austrian historical land surveys and the contemporan maps we noticed what appeared to be an earth mound field west of our interes area. Consulting archaeological literature refering to Şişterea area we find only two informations. First referring to one Jászladány type copper axe (Dumitraşcu 1974; Vulpe 1975: 41, nr. 143, taf. 19/143) and another one relating to an „tumulus field” in the close proximity, at Fegernicu Nou, which is the same with what we noticed on historical maps (Dumitraşcu, Hadnagy 1980). After that we organized an archeological survey. On-site, we found a lot of pottery, adobe, stone blades and splinters. At the surface was visible some rectangular structures, probably the remains of houses. The artifacts belong to the Late Neolithic period, probably Herpály culture.

2. Florin GOGÂLTAN, Dăbâca. Un atelier metalurgic al epocii bronzului din Transilvania

Dăbâca. Ein bronzezeitliches Metallhandwerk in Siebenbürgen

Vor einigen Jahren hatte mir Adrian A. Rusu einige Zeichnungen mit Materialien aus Dăbâca gezeigt, die mit Sicherheit nicht dem Mittelalter zugeordnet werden konnten. Von diesen hoben sich drei Gussformen und drei Tondüsen hervor (Abb. 4-7). Über diese gab es nur die Information, die auf den Originalzeichnungen vom Aprilie 1975 aufgezeichnet wurde und zwar, dass sie in Dăbâca im S 3/11 von 1973 in einer Tiefe von 2,00-2,25 m entdeckt wurden. Auf der Zeichnung der Axt-Gussform mit kugelsegmentförmigem Nacken schrieb M. Rusu noch „+Schmelztiegel und Gussrohre”. Er bezog sich selbstverständlich auf einen Schmelztiegel und die Tondüsen. Der interessanteste Gegenstand von Dăbâca ist die Gussform für eine Axt mit Kugelsegmentnacken (Abb. 4). Es gibt keinerlei Analogie für solch eine Axt, weshalb deren Datierung in die mittlere Bronzezeit (eventuell gegen das Ende der Periode) nur aufgrund von einigen typologischen Elementen wie das Kugelsegmentnacken gemacht wurde. Zu dieser Datierung trägt auch der Rest der Gegenstände bei wie die Gussform für ein Flachbeil (Abb. 5) sowie die drei Tondüsen (Abb. 7). Ein anderer Aspekt ist, dass in dieser Werkstatt ein neuer Axttypus hergestellt wurde, eine Innovation, die zwischen den Endprodukten der Bronzezeit im Karpatenbecken nicht mehr wiederzufinden ist. Eine derartige Situation muss uns aber nicht überraschen. Um über Schaftrohräxte mit kugelsegmentförmigem Nacken oder Nackenscheiben aus Karpatenbecken zu sprechen, kann in erster Linie ihre typologische Vielfalt hervorgehoben werden. So wie das aus den von Ehrengard Kroeger-Michel oder neuestens von Wolfgang David vorgelegten Synthesen hervorgeht, gibt es eigentlich keine in Form, Ausmassen und Verzierung identische Gegenstände. Diese Tatsache ist durch ihre Herstellungsart sowie von der grossen Entfernung der verschiedenen metallhandwerklichen Werkstätten voneinander zu erklären. So hat jeder Meister die Identität einer Axt geprägt. Bezüglich der Gussform von Dăbâca ist es möglich, dass sie eine technische Neuerung war, die sich keinem realen Erfolg erfreuen konnte. Selbst wenn weiterhin noch viele Fragezeichen stehen bleiben, bleibt eine Tatsache als gesichert: die Funde von Dăbâca sind ein Beleg für bronzezeitliches Metallhandwerk in Siebenburgen.

3. Călin GHEMIŞ, Gruia FAZECAȘ, Doru MARTA, Un complex aparţinând finalului epocii Bronzului, descoperit la Oradea „Cimitirul Rulikowski”

One Late Bronze Age rit from Oradea „Cimitirul Rulikowski”

In 2001 there were discovered several archaeological complexes on the excavation carried out for the construction of the ring road of Oradea. One of them makes the subject of our paper as it can be interpreted as a ritual context. The filling consists of one level composed of black earth mixed with ashes and burnt pieces of soil. Recovered materials consist solely of ceramics, about the center of the complex was deposited a midsize river boulder. A part of the pottery was burned secondary and some fragments are deformed because of this. Among the discoveries it is noted the lower half of a cup of medium size, with strong traces of secondary burning, decorated with fluted knobs, two cups, including one with the walls pushed outward, channeled, the vessel body was ornamented with incissions disposed in arcade together with a chariot wheel fragment. For the chronology of this complex, among other pieces, it is noted a vessel with walls in „S” shape, which is on the outside rows of stitching a strip of successive triangular specific to the late phase of Wietenberg culture. This complex is simmilar to those known at Şimleu Silvaniei (Sălaj county) or Palota and Girişu de Criş (Bihor county), their main feature is the presence of local material, associated with Wietenberg elements in closed complexes. The length of this time horizon is difficult to determine, but as F. Gogâltan highlighted at the time of Şimleul Silvaniei pit publication, this not exceed the range of Reinecke Br. C period, Late Bronze Age I, second part of the II-nd millenia BC.

4. Călin GHEMIŞ, Inel din aur aparţinând Bronzului Târziu, descoperit la Betfia (jud. Bihor)

One Late Bronze Age Gold Ring, from Betfia (Bihor County)

In November 2015, in the area of Betfia village, near Oradea was found incidentally an Late Bronze Age gold ring. Based on the typological characteristics, the ring can be included in the category of notched rings of Sarasău type dated in Late Bronze Age, – L.B.A. II – XIV-XII century B.C. Unfortunately despite of the fact that the spot of discovery was verified together with the discoverer no other information (or archeological materials) can be provided regarding the archaeological context of this discovery.

5. Cristian Ioan POPA, Monede vechi, interpretări noi. În jurul unor pretinse prezenţe celtice în zona minieră a Apusenilor

Ancient Coins New Interpretation. About Alleged Celtic Presence in Mining Area of Western Carpathians Mountains

Some remarks from the last decade regarding the dating of the coins from the mining areas of the Apuseni Mountains (Bucium-Roşia Montană) have mistakenly misapplied the idea of a Celtic presence in this area. The author proposes a discussion regarding these coins, wrongly dated and misplaced, either because of the confusion created by old specialized literature or because the lack of reading it. What they consider to be Philip II type coins, dated in the IV-III centuries BC, are in fact Dacian issued coins (Aninoasa-Dobreşti type), probably around the second half of the II century BC and the first half of the I century. Therefore, a celtic presence in the IV-III centuries BC, in the gold mining area of Bucium-Roşia Montană is excluded, at least from the point of view of monetary discoveries.

6. Ioan CRIŞAN, Instrumente muzicale populare medievale descoperite în judeţul Bihor

Medieval Folk Musical Instruments Discovered in Bihor County

Through archaeological research and recreational activities of metal detection performed in archaeological sites in the Bihor County, they also discovered musical instruments. Whistles and jew’s harps, they belong to the categories of wind and strings. The fact that, in the majority, they have been discovered in the area of some village settlements pleads for their inclusion in the category of folk musical instruments.

7. Adriano PAPO, La ‘breve’ corografia della Transilvania di Giovanandrea Gromo

The ‘short’ corography of Transylvania by Giovanandrea Gromo

The purpose of this work is to analyse a letter from Giovanandrea Gromo to a Roman prelate dated Venice, 19th December 1564, where the writer, who in 1564 had entered the service of the Prince of Transylvania John Sigismund Szapolyai as commander of his army and of his personal guard, meant to place his lord in a favourable light in front of Italian princes. Gromo also intended to present in the most respectable manner both the material resources (the natural wealth of country) and the military ones (fortifications, armed forces) of the Prince of Transylvania in order to evaluate the feasibility of his alliance with Italian princes in an eventual anti–Ottoman crusade. The letter is after all a corography, that is a historical, geographical, political, religious and anthropic description of Transylvania and, partly, of the conterminal regions of Moldavia and Wallachia as well.

8. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO, L’ascesa di Gabriele Bethlen al principato di Transilvania e i suoi primi anni di regno sulla base dei rapporti diplomatici degli ambasciatori veneti presso la Porta. 1613–1619

Gabriel Bethlen’s Rise to the Throne of Transylvania and His First Years of Reign Through the Notes of Venetian Ambassadors to Constantinople. 1613–1619

After an outline of the situation of the Principality of Transylvania in the period of the reign of Gabriel Báthori (1608–13), Gabriel Bethlen’s relationship with the Porta has been analyzed from his rise to power till his entrance to the Thirty Years’ War (1613–19). The study was carried out utilizing the dispatches of Venetian ambassadors to Constantinople collected by János Mircse and published by Lipót Óváry in 1886 on behalf of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The Gabriel Bethlen – Porta relationship was mainly focused on the question of transfer to the Ottomans of both fortresses of Lippa/Lipova and Jenő/Ineu, which the sultan wanted to control directly. Meanwhile, the conflict between the Roman-Germanic Empire and the Ottoman one persisted, despite the fact that the peace of Zsitvatorok signed between the two potentates was still in force since 1606. But we are on the eve of the Thirty Years’ War.

9. Diana IANCU, O relatare despre cucerirea cetăţii Oradea de către trupele imperiale în anul 1692

A Relating About the Conquest of Oradea by the Imperial Troops in 1692

In this paper we present a document that describes some aspects of Oradea fortress history. We focus on the Ottoman siege of the fortress in 1598 and 1660, concluded with the conquest of the Oradea’s fortress. They reigned here until 1692, when the Austrian troops conquered the fortress and the city of Oradea, fact that caused significant changes in the politic, cultural, social and religious life of Oradea city.

10. Florina CIURE, Cucerirea Timişoarei de către Habsburgi (1716) în izvoare veneţiene de epocă

The Habsburg Conquest of Timişoara (1716) in Contemporary Venetian Sources

The Venice State Archive preserves in the collection Senato Secreta, Dispacci Germania, some information about the conquest of Timisoara by the Imperials in the year 1716. Dispacci – the letters that the Venetian ambassadors had to sent regularly (every week) to the central authorities of the Serenissima, were signed by the Venetians diplomats accredited to the Habsburgs, Carlo Ruzzini and Pietro Grimani. Since August of 1696, Carlo Ruzzini announced the intentions of the Imperialists to proceed immediately to the conquest of Timisoara and adds to his dispaccio a plan of the fortifications executed by the Ottomans. There are more dispatches sent by Ambassador Pietro Grimani in the fall of 1716, in which are presented in detail the actions of the imperialists that culminated with the conquest of the city so far controlled by the Ottomans. The Venetian Senate, in charge of foreign policy of the Republic, also received the conditions of capitulations of the Ottomans and the points approved by the Habsburgs. The numerous and accurate information contained in the letters are largely drawn from the correspondence sent to the Emperor by Prince Eugene of Savoy from the military camp of operations. The letters kept at the State Archives of St. Mark’s offer new evidences of an important event in the history of Timisoara, also reflecting the degree of knowledge of the realities of this part of Europe in Venice.

11. Augustin MUREŞAN, Sigiliul breslei unite din Ciacova pe un document din 1823

The Seal of the United Guild from Ciacova on a 1823 Document

The author presents the seal of the United Guild from Ciacova, Timiş county, applied with sealing wax on a document issued on 20th of June, 1823. There is a rectangular shield on the emblem, divided into six quarters with symbols typical of the six trades, those of the cobblers, potters, carpenters, tailors, belt makers and hatters. To be recalled in a symbolistic way, heraldic images were used, showing typical tools (used by potters, carpenters and tailors) and finished products (bootmaking shops, belt maker shops, and haters`shops).

12. Mirela Popa-ANDREI, L’élite ecclesiastica dei romeni transilvani e il movimento di emancipazione politico-nazionale, 1860-1865

The ecclesiastical elite of the Transylvanian Romans and the movement of political-national emancipation 1860-1865

The Transylvanian Romanians’ ecclesiastical elite maintained their quality of legitimate spokesmen for the Romanians from the Age of Enlightened Reformism to the Years of Austrian (Semi) Liberalism. In this study we aim to analyze, from a sociological perspective, the effective role played by the ecclesiastical elite the movement of national and political emancipation. As regards the structure of the Romanian elite, between 1860 and 1865, the Romanian elite was marked by powerful upheavals, disputes and realignments which brought into relief several political factions. Despite all these changes affecting the structure of the Romanian elite, the ecclesiastical elite remained at the forefront of the political movement. In fact, it was the laity that placed the bishops (and the conservative group) at the forefront of the national movement during the national conference from January 1861. Our research propose to examine from a sociological perspective the actual role played by the ecclesiastical elite, its degree of involvement in the Romanian national political movement, as well as the political conduct of this social category between 1860 and 1865.

13. Răzvan Mihai NEAGU, Studenţi din Comitatul Bihor la Facultatea de Teologie a Universităţii din Cernăuţi (1875-1918)

Students from Bihor County at the Faculty of Theology of the University of Chernivtsi (1875-1918)

The Romanian community from Bihor county gave between 1875-1918 five students at the theology faculty in Chernivtsi. Although they came from modest families, these young persons understood that studying in a university is the only form of social and professional ascension. They become remarkable personalities of Romanian Orthodoxy from the interwar period, especially if we refer to Teodor Botiş, Gheorghe Ciuhandu and Lazăr Iacob. All three dedicated their entire activity to the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Romanian school.

14. Florin ARDELEAN, Destin şi provocare Vasile Lucaciu şi Vasile Mangra sau sarcasmul istoriei

Destination and Challenge Vasile Lucaciu and Vasile Mangra or the Fair of History

Vasile Lucaciu and Vasile Mangra distinguish themselves as prominent personalities – from a political and confessional point of view- of the Transylvanian Romanians at the end of the XIX-th century and the first two decades of the XX-th century. Each of them stood out by the poignant activism proven in favour of the rights that the Romanians in the Austro-Hungarian Empire sought to impose to decision-making bodies that were reluctant to any kind of modern reformism. Nevertheless, at a certain moment, what seemed to be a destiny in a harmonious duality, based on principles pertaining to patriotism and nationalism, broke off. Vasile Mangra, Orthodox bishop and metropolitan, was seduced by the discourse of the earl Tisza István, making the game of the Hungarian authorities and becoming an abhorrent character, a traitor, in the eyes of the Romanians from Ardeal. The two characters, set in a strong contrast, of options and national vision, were to have a death at least as sad as their lives. Vasile Mangra was to die a few days before the Union from Alba Iulia, fallen into disgrace and buried at Budapest, and Vasile Lucaciu would fall victim, in 1922, to the electoral passions that turned into terrible fights.

15. Veronica TURCUŞ, Şerban TURCUŞ, Istoricul problemei preotului italian la biserica italiană din Bucureşti. Documente despre cazul Gatti (1951-52)

The Historian of the Italian Priest’s at the Italian Church in Bucharest. Documents on the Gatti Case (1951-52)

This study traces the evolution over the time of the issue of the Italian priest that the Holy See destined for the pastoral care of the Italian community in Bucharest, from the early twentieth century until 1990, in the frame of the interest of the Apostolic See and the Italian state for religious assistance given to emigration from Peninsula. In this context are presented the figures of the first priests of the Italian community in Bucharest, focusing on the figures of father Antonio Mantica and Clemente Gatti, for the latter’s destiny being also published in the Annex a number of original documents from the Foreign Ministry of Italy on his arrest and release (1951-1952).

16. Cristian CULICIU, Problemele cotidiene în atenţia autorităţilor. Activitatea Comitetului Regional/Judeţean Bihor al PCR privind scrisorile oamenilor muncii (1960-1988)

Local Authorities Facing Everyday Problems. The Activity of the Bihor Regional/County Committee PCR Regarding the Letters Received from Citizens (1960-1988)

In socialist Romania, esspecially in the 70s’ and the 80s’, problems were numerous. There were general problems, regarding housing, food supply, energy consumption, and particular issues, different from a person to another. All kinds of problems were brought to the local authorities’ attention by sending letters of complaint and audiences. In this paper, we follow annual reports from the Bihor county Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, on the number and problems related in these letters and audiences. There number varied and the issues contained are to be classified in a few categories. We will also see what was the legal framework of resolving these problems and also a few concrete cases, based on these categories.

17. Iuliu-Marius MORARIU, Conflictul dintre Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu şi Monica Lovinescu, reflectat în memorialistica exilului parizian

Conflict Between Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu and Monica Lovinescu, Reflected in the Parisian Exile Memorial

In this research, the author presents the way how, the conflict that took place between Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu and Monica Lovinescu in 1953, in the memories, correspondence and notes of the Romanian writers from the Paris exile, Mircea Eliade, Sanda Stolojan, Emil Cioran and Neagu Djuvara. After the presentation of the event and its context, there are emphasized and analysed their opinions. The work shows that, for the exile, this was an important moment that certified the importance of Lovinescu-Ierunca family in this space, and contributed to the decredibilisation of Virgil Gheorghiu and of the Romanian exile. Also, it brings again into attention the personality of the aforementioned writer and his relation with Monica Lovinescu.

18. Roland OLAH, Aspecte socio-demografice privind transfugii români arestaţi de grănicerii maghiari în anul 1987

Socio-Demographic Aspects Regarding the Romanian Transfugs Arising from the Magiar Magics in 1987

In the 1970s, Romania is undergoing a series of domestic and international crises which will seriously affect the economic situation from the 1980’s and will contribute to the fall of the Nicolae Ceausescu’s regime. This economic crisis will increase the phenomenon of illegal cross-border. Annually, several thousand Romanians left Romania illegally in hope of a decent living in a western country. The Romanians left the country using two main routes, the Hungarian and Yugoslav routes. Year 1987 is the beginning of a wave of refugees, which will end the end of 1989.

19. Gabriel MOISA, Aspecte privind viaţa cotidiană din Bihor în ultimii ani ai regimului comunist

Aspects About the Daily Life of Bihor in the Last Years of the Communist Regime

The last decade of the communist regime in Romania was a very complicated one due to the economic crisis that led to drastic reductions in the system of supplying the population with products necessary for daily living. This caused severe problems in the everyday life that was marked by the absence of food on the market, leading to serious health problems due to malnutrition. This situation developed gradually, but, by the end of the ‘80s, things turned for the worse. Even if this aspect was known by the supervisory structures, the Securitate mainly, measures to improve the situation were taken only after the fall of the communist regime. Under a continuous rumour about the “decadent” West which “exploited” Romania through its international financial institutions, primarily the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the population’s expectations were very high at the beginning of 1989 when, on 31 March, 1989 at the meeting of the Political Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party it was announced that Romania had managed to pay off its external debt.