Crisia 2016, XLVI
1. Călin GHEMIŞ, O descoperire medieval-timpurie din peştera Unguru Mare – com. Şuncuiuş, jud. Bihor
Early Medieval Discovery at Unguru Mare Cave in Şuncuiuş. Bihor County
On the occasion of a field trip in Unguru Mare Cave (com. Şuncuiuş Bihor County), on the left side of the impresive entrance 32×22 meters, in the cave, was discovered an early mediaeval arrow head. Based on the discoveries from Şimleu Silvaniei and Cuceu both in Silvanian Basin, the cronological position of this discovery can be placed arond the first half of Xth century, in these sense being one of the earliest medieval deiscovery from this area.
2. Ioan CRIŞAN, Consideraţii cu privire la colonizarea cumanilor în Bihorul medieval. Arheologie, onomastică, toponimie
Considerations about the Colonization of the Cumans in the Medieval Bihor. Archaeology, Onomatology, Toponymy
The colonization of the Cumans in the medieval Bihor enrolls in the large context of the lands repopulation left following the great Tatar invasion in the year 1241. For this purpose, but also in order to Christianize and transition to the sedentary life, the diet of Tétény in 1279 decided the dispersion of the Cumans in several dioceses in the Kingdom of Hungary, among them also that of Oradea. The archaeological excavations of Rădvani medieval village cemetery – documented settlement beginning in 1214, but founded in the early 11th century on the place of an early medieval settlement in the 8th – 10th centuries, located in the sector A of Cefa-La Pădure site, they removed the Cuman origin materials. A Cuman presence is also signaled by the toponymy of this areal. Among the tombs belonging to the second phase of the funerals, a group of four tombs (three children and an adult) was focused on the attention and a child’s skull derived from a tomb destroyed. From the inventory of the M.380 tomb, of a child, was part also a buckle with Runic inscription in the Cuman idiom. By analogy with a piece of the same class, discovered in the M.170 tomb in the cemetery from Karcag- Orgondaszentmiklós (Hungary, – commit. Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok) we ascribe the buckle from Cefa-La Pădure to the Cuman cultural environment and chronologically we place it the 14th and 15th centuries. Thus, we believe that the tomb M.380 and the group that was part of that attest the colonization in the Rădvani settlement of some Cumans from the Olas ancestry on the left bank of the Tisza River. Together with the toponym Gepiu and with the hydronim Corhana, the tombs in the cemetery of the Rădvani village contour a Cuman colonization area in the plain between Oradea and Salonta.
3. Răzvan Mihai NEAGU, Episcopii italieni de Oradea (secolele XIV-XV)
Italian Bishops of Oradea (the XIV-X Centuries)
Among the Italian hierarchs who shepherded in the Eastern of the Medieval Hungary, outstood the four bishops of Oradea who ruled towards the end of the XIV century and the middle of the XV century, having a positive impact on the evolution of this ecclesiastical institution. They brought in Oradea, and by extension, in the East of Hungary, new elements of a cultural paradigm, Humanism, which had been just manifested in the cultural space of the Italian expression. Besides the ecclesiastic side of their activity, the Italian bishops in Oradea were political personalities close to the Hungarian kings, of whose privileges they enjoyed, being part of the royal entourage. Among these, distinguishes Andrea Scolari, attendant to the Konstanz council, who created a true cultural development plan of his diocese and introduced the first Renaissance elements in this area. Another personality, Giovanni de Dominis, proved loyalty to the Hungarian kingdom by paying with his own life in the Varna crusade (1444). The presence of some Italian bishops in Oradea is proof to the relationship between the Medieval Hungary and the Italian space, and also of the existence of a real cultural channel between the Italian Peninsula and the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.
4. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO, Le ambascerie a Venezia del principe di Transilvania Gabriele Bethlen e la guerra dei Trent’Anni
The Diplomatic Missions to Venice of the Prince of Transylvania Gabriel Bethlen and the Thirty Years’ War
This paper examines the military campaigns carried out by the prince of Transylvania Gabriel Bethlen against the countries of the Catholic League involved in the Thirty Years’ War. Notices, dispatches and documents of the Venetian Senate have been utilized. Not being able to face war with his own forces, already in 1621, without success Bethlen proposed a military alliance with Venice. Venice accepted only the commercial part of the treaty of alliance. Nevertheless, the Transylvanian prince mobilized his army three times against the Habsburgs. The defeat suffered at Drégelypalánk in front of the army of Albrecht von Wallenstein, together with those of his allies, the king of Denmark and the count of Mansfeld, did turn the Transylvanian prince towards a new peace with the Empire. Meanwhile, Count Mansfeld, himself defeated by Wallenstein, tried to reach the Republic of Venice, where he intended to spend his last days. However, he died in the vicinity of Sarajevo and his body was buried in Split. After retiring from war, it seems Bethlen had spread rumors according to which Venice had broken its promise of aid: without the Venetian support he was compelled to withdraw not having sufficient forces to resist the imperial armies.
5. SZABÓ József, Viaţă cotidiană în târgul Diosig şi împrejurimi între 1658/1660–1703. Studiu monografic
Daily Life in Diosig and Neighbourhoods between 1658/1660-1703. Monograpghical Study
History of Ierul Valley (rom.: Valea Ierului, hung.: Érmellék) between 1658-1703 was the most troubled period in the past of this region. The period was marked formerly by the decline of the controversial rule of Rákóczy György the IInd in Transylvania following his desastruous campaing for the polish throne in 1657. History of Oradea and Debrecen(Hu) cities in that periode was largelly studied, but Diosig’s history (although it was the second biggest locality in Bihor county after Debrecen in 1692) with its neighbourhoods was no of search interest. This paper try to draw the importance of Diosig in the very complex military and political happenings from Ierul Valley in that era. We have consistent data regarding ottoman influence in Ierul Valley (especially in Diosig) beginning from the middle of XVIth century: in that period Diosig initially was part of a timar (payment propriety with a value of <20.000 akches), but at the beginnig of XVIIth century it was part of a ziamet (payment propriety with a value between 20-100.000 akches). Ottoman turkish occupation in Bihor county took place between 1660-1692 (the two siege of Oradea by ottomans and habsburgs), but in the Ierul Valley only until 1686 (the siege of Sâniob by habsburgs). Diosig became the part of Pashaluk Oradea (ottoman turkish: Varat Eyaleti) and Nahie of Bihar in september 1660. In 1660 it was written by turks and added by the sultan to the Köprülü Family Grand Vizier’s haas (payment propriety with a value >100.000 akches) who transformed it as an endowment (waqf/vakif/awkaf) in the interest of ottoman church. When a propriety became a waqf even the sultan couldn’t touch it. After a military reform (in 1670) a significant part of hungarian soldiers serving under austriac flag were sent from habsburgic fortresses off. They called themselves kurucz and became the basis of a very powerfull antihabsburgical military movement. There chief between 1678-1685 was Thököly Imre, chief of Upper Hungary Principality between 1683-1686, too. With the agreement of Grand Vizier, the kurucz soldiers and Thököly Imre had a continuous refuge in Diosig in this periode with all the negative detailed consequences upon Diosig. Based on narrative sources, Diosig was a camp field (how is detailed in this paper) for different armies in 1663, 1680-1692, too. We drew the economical history of Diosig town under habsburgic rule, too. Finally, there are cited a few data regarding to religious life of Diosig in the study periode. In this paper there is drawn daily life in Diosig in the given conditions of second half of XVIIth century (ie. ottoman and transylvanian taxation). Thanking to the special statute as a waqf, and other privileges accorded by transylvanian principles and pashas of Oradea together with the good effects of viticulture on Diosig demography, Diosig survived this periode with a very good demography and economy potential which assured a good start point for the town (hung. mezőváros, rom. târg) of Diosig to develop in the more relaxed conditions of the XVIIIth century.
6. M. Marcella FERRACCIOLI, Gianfranco GIRAUDO, Missioni di Cappuccini in Georgia
Capuchin missions in Georgia
Manuscript PDc77 from the Correr Museum in Venice is, as other documents from there, a collection of diverse documents from various eras, written by different hands and sewn together. The document that we will try to analyse is a letter of a Catholic Armenian Bishop to Pope Innocent XI, (dated 1683). There are two situations that curiously intersect in a narrow geographic scope and far from the decision centres: on the one hand we find the untameable desire to create an imperialist war, disguised as jihad, which has as its primary objective the Ottoman Empire and the destruction of Islam: on the other hand, the equally untameable hope of reductio ad unum of all Christian denominations in the bosom of the Church of Rome, in order to strengthen the Christian community.
7. Florina CIURE, Cucerirea Aradului de către Habsburgi (1686) într-un izvor veneţian contemporan
The Conquest of Arad by the Habsburgs (1686) in a Contemporary Venetian Source
National Library of St. Mark’s in Venice hosts a miscellany containing 84 opuscula entitled Reports of the Imperial armies victories over the Turks. At number 11 there is a Very true and distinctive Report of the conquest of Arad fortress in the Upper Hungary under 19. December 1686. By the Imperial Armies With the death of Pasha of Sofia, and thousands of Turks, cut in pieces, and great amount of slaves made prisons, and with a big rich booty, consisting in horses, weapons, and all sorts of Turkish crew, that were in the Square of the Pasha of Sofia, published in the same year in Venice. This report presents in detail the actions of Imperial armies against the Ottoman army, culminating with the conquest of the city.
8. Tiberiu Alexandru CIORBA, Procesul canonic al primului episcop greco-catolic de Oradea Moise Dragoşi (1777-1787)
The Canonical Trial of the First Greek-Catholic Bishop of Oradea Moise Dragoşi (1777-1787)
Moise Dragoşi was the first elected bishop of the Greek-catholic Oradea Diocese. Up until 1777, when the bishopric was founded, the Greek-catholic community (mostly Romanians) fell under the legal and spiritual jurisdiction of the Roman-catholic Diocese. This hindered further progress of the Romanians in terms of eclesiastical and cultural structure. All that changed when Dragoşi was elected and the diocese was created. This article aims at deconstructing the process by which he was named using certain key documents found at the Vatican Secret Archives. The canonical trial that was conducted to see if he was worthy to handed the episcopal robe offers us interesting information regarding the life and times of that era, and what kind of man Moise Dragoşi was.
9. Augustin MUREŞAN, Tiparul sigilar al breslei dulgherilor, lăcătuşilor, argintarilor, zidarilor, sticlarilor, armurierilor, morarilor, tâmplarilor, tinichigiilor şi năsturarilor din Jimbolia (1824)
The 1824 Seal Pattern of the United Guild of Joiners, Locksmith, Goldsmith, Builders, Glaziers, Armourers, Millers, Carpenters, Whitesmiths And Buttons Artisans in Jimbolia (1824)
The author presents a seal belonging to the United Guild of Jimbolia, dating from 1824. This seal is included in the category of heraldic seals. On the emblem, there are representasions of the craftsmen who joined this professional association: joiniers, locksmiths, goldsmiths, builders, glaziers, armourers, millers, carpenters, whitesmiths and buttons artisans.
10. Ronald HOCHHAUSER, NAGY István, 110 ani de transport public cu tramvaiul electric în Oradea
The First Tram in Oradea Started off 110 Years Ago
Our study follows the history of the 110-year-old tramway in Oradea. This vehicle was crucial in the development of the city in the 20th century. Using the results of our latest research we want to complement the other works regarding this issue. After the first unsuccessful plans of the horse path, a steam based freight rail system was built in the city in 1882, preceding the local passenger transport. The first tram started off in 1906, and this marked the beginning of a success story. We evoke the atmosphere of this significant event using the articles that appeared in the press of that period. After its establishment, Nagyváradi Városi Vasút Society became the only local passenger and goods transporting company. Studying the permission deed of the society we can find out a great deal about the first tram lines and the capacity of the vehicles. Our study presents the development of the network which was significant in spite of two world wars and five regime changes. At the same time, we can gain insight into the work in the remise where not only repairs were made but also complete tram cars were built, giving birth to the subtype called „from Oradea”. Following the articles in the news that describe the changes in the nationalisation period we also depict the metamorphosis of the city and the transformation of its spirit. We shortly expound the events that took place in the last two decades and close our study with the new plans of the local transport company. We find it imperative to emphasize the importance of taking care of the memories of our past which help us to lay the foundations of our future.
11. Mirela POPA ANDREI, Rifugiati nel proprio paese. Il confino dei vescovi romeni della Transilvania dopo l’entrata della Romania in guerra (1916)
Refugees in Their Own Homeland. The Relocation of the Romanian Higher Clergy in Transylvania after Romania’s Entry into War (1916)
In this study, we aim to present one of the numerous measures taken by the Hungarian government after Romania’s declaration of war against Austria-Hungary. This measure refers to the relocation of the Greek-Catholic archbishop and the gremial clergy of the two Romanian – Greek-Catholic and the Orthodox – Churches from Blaj and Sibiu to Oradea. Sibiu and Blaj were on the Romanian Army’s line of attack and the Hungarian government was prepared to accept, at least in theory, the possibility that the Romanian soldiers would enter the two cities, whose value as national religious symbols was significant among the Romanian communities. In the context created by the Romanian troops’ advancement in Transylvania in 1916, it was important that the voices of the ecclesiastical hierarchs should remind the Romanians that their loyalty should be directed to Vienna and Budapest, and not to Bucharest. Wishing to keep the Romanians’ religious leaders under stricter control, the Hungarian authorities decided to move them to Oradea. The place chosen to shelter the representatives of the two metropolitan sees was a town that enjoyed both a commanding prestige and a convenient geographical position, being situated far enough from the border with Romania. Thus, for nearly 10 months (September 1916-July 1917) the two Romanian metropolitans, Victor Mihályi of Apşa and Vasile Mangra, were confined to a place of refuge by force, inside their own country, in Oradea, from where they governed their dioceses.
12. Cornelia ROMÂNAŞU, Câteva aspecte privind istoria chesturii de poliţie Oradea. Structuri organizatorice şi de personal (1929-1940)
A few Aspects Regarding the History of Police Quaestorship in Oradea. Organizational and Staff Structures (1929-1940)
The Great Union of 1918 meant not only the completion of the national territory but also a „touchstone” for the Romanian administration and, therefore, for the Romanian police, who had to face the new post-war realities and the efforts made to return to a state of normality in the society. It was a difficult period that registered some initiatives, yet without reaching the stage of completion. Except for the most difficult times, the police in Bihor County, founded in 1919, was concerned to achieve a number of overall purposes during the interwar period: the correction or annihilation of deviant behaviours, of acts of disorder and corruption, of the anarchy trends and social chaos, thus ensuring peace and order, which were requisite to modern society.
13. Mirela MOCAN, Proiecte de dezvoltare economică a Ţării Moţilor în perioada interbelică
Ţara Moţilor economic development projects in the interwar period
The difficult situation of Moţilor County, due to the mountains and inhabitants’ ruthless exploitation, the total lack of understanding of governments during the Hungarian reign, the obvious and deliberate inequity and oppression of the old pre-war government, has caused the Romanian Government to turn its attention towards stopping the people’s pitiable situation. The governments that passed one after another at the country’s helm, the politicians, the different central institutions’representatives have declared, on all occasions, that helping the moţii is a primary duty for the state. Everyone knew their difficult situation, they all agreed that moţii, a certified source of Romanian culture and economic creation, must be quickly brought back to a cultural and socioeconomic state according to the demands of the new times. Few of the proposed projects and promises made have been accomplished, due to the government’ s economic and social structure that didn’t dispose of the capacity and necessary means to radically solve the situation in the Apuseni Mountains.
14. Cristian CULICIU, Structura organizatorică a comitetului judeţean PCR Bihor. Statistici 1968-1988
The organizational structure of Bihor county committee PCR. Statistics 1968-1988
The Romanian Communist Party’s (RCP) structure was copied in all political, administrative and economical structures around the country. There were two subunits: the Committee and the so called ‘core’. Political Committee’s were designed to rule many structures, like counties, cities, communes, factories and public institutions. In this paper, we will see how the Bihor county RCP Committee was organized and hot it evolved between 1968 and 1988. Some of these evolutions are seen as statistics on the total number of Party members, along with the total number of women, men, workers, Romanians and so on. Documents seen show also how people were selected to join the RCP, how they were politically educated and what were the main reasons for the withdrawal of the membership.
15. Mircea POPA, Scrisori Ionel Pop către Alexandru Şerban
Letters from Ionel Pop to Alexandru Şerban
Outstanding personality of our political and cultural life of the interwar period, Ionel Pop (1889-1985) emerged as an avid hunter, editor of fishing-hunting-dog world “Carpathians” (1932-1947) and known writer on topics of life animal habitat and wildlife in the Carpathians. Courtesy of Mrs. Corina Serban, Alexandru Serban’s wife, I came into possession of this epistolary exchange of 23 letters, which will be important for those interested in the history of hunters and hunting in Romania.
16. Gabriel MOISA, A scrie şi a contra-face istorie în România anilor ’80 ai secolului trecut. Câteva consideraţii
Writing and Inventing History in Romania of the 1980’s. A few remarks
History, as a field of study, represents a fundamental direction of what means charting human features. The lack of historical perspective, not knowing the context or worse, deliberate manipulation may frequently lead to statements that are disturbing for the historian. However, this would not be a disaster since the specialist disposes of the necessary antidote to set things straight. What is even worse is the major impact on the society and how society is informed with direct negative consequences on the perception of the reality and of the world around. Manipulation has always been present in the field of history, but the phenomenon has taken a terribly interesting and particularly acute turn during the last century.