Crisia 2015, XLV
STUDII / STUDIES
1. Gruia Traian FAZECAŞ, Doru Mircea MARTA
Cercetările de teren de la Marghita. Discuţii privind câmpurile de movile din judeţul Bihor
Archaeological Survey in Marghita Municipality. Some Remarks Concerning Mound Fields in Bihor County
In September 2015, when an update of the General Urban Plan of Marghita municipality was needed, we conducted a field research in its administrative boundaries (which also comprise Cheţ and Ghenetea villages alongside of Marghita town). Beside the archaeological discoveries made over the time but unidentified in the field, we found an earth mound field in the Cheţ village proximity. Untill now, in Bihor county there are known 15 such mound fields. Some researchers consider these features like tumulus fields and others like remains of some wood-charcoal instalations. Although there were no artifacts discovered that could explain the functionality of the mound formations, we believe that a more detailed research would bring a more relevant image about their real meaning. As an example we present the case of one tumulus which was explored in 2010 at Tăşad, where we found pottery belonging to early stages of Early Iron Age, which can be connected with the same chronological stage found in the settlement near by.
2. Corina TOMA
Fibule cu noduri în curs de prelucrare păstrate în colecţia muzeului din Oradea. Reevaluarea tezaurului dacic descoperit în anul 1972 la Sacalasău Nou, jud. Bihor
Unfinished Knotted Fibulae Preserved in the Collection of the Museum in Oradea. Reevaluating the Dacian hoard discovered in 1972 in Sacalasău Nou (Bihor County)
The article brings back into attention one of the hoards consisting of Dacian jewelry items and dress accessories discovered near the settlement in Sacalasău Nou (Bihor County). This re-opening of the discussion was triggered by the completion of the lot published in 1975 with two new items. The latter were briefly mentioned in 1981 as parts of fragmentarily preserved knotted fibulae, but specialists failed to notice them. The re-identification of the items as parts of fibulae that were left unfinished invalidates, at least in the present case, the hypothesis according to which knotted fibulae were produced from a single silver bar each. The analysis of the half-finished items and, in parallel, that of certain repaired fibulae (Mediaş, Ceheţel) or finished pieces (Sacalasău, Tăşad) has revealed several technological details related to the manner in which the knots were obtained and to the way in which craftsmen attached the fibula foot to the arch. The imperfections, inherent to the processing of the knotted foot through hammering, and the fissures observed under the microscope in the case of one of the finished fibulae’s foot rod render its possible plating with a silver plate plausible. The inclusion of unfinished fibulae in the lot of jewelry items that entered the collection of the museum in Oradea in 1979, besides one fibula that shows clear traces of intended repairing and the multiple discoveries of drachmas minted in Apollonia and Dyrrhachium that were probably used as primary material, reveals the existence of a silversmith’s workshop in the area of the Dacian settlement in Sacalasău Nou.
3. Augustin MUREŞAN
Câte ceva despre stindardul dacic şi funcţiile lui pe columna lui Traian
A Few Considerations on the Dacian Flag and its Functions Illustrated on Trajan’s Column
The author presents a few considerations on the Dacian standard („draco”) and its functions as revealed by the scenes depicted on Trajan’s Column. The evidence of this flag is clear as it appears on the Column’s reliefs, in several scenes, particularly in battle scenes. The flag is represented at a larger scale repeatedly in scenes depicting events prior to 102 A. D. However, there is only one representation of the flag after that year, which may not be pointless since the flag is a symbol of sovereignty. After 102, flying the flag could have been illegal from the point of view of those who had imposed some conditions when they decided to leave in peace with the Dacians. Analysed from an iconographical perspective in the contexts in which it was depicted in the various scenes on the Column, the Dacian „draco” proves to have certain functions, such as to identify the royal presence, to identify the Dacian soldiers, to point out the meeting place of the Dacian soldiers in a camp, or the direction of withdrawal of the soldiers, to identify the battle formations of the Dacians and the trophies conquered by the Romans etc.
4. Ioan CRIŞAN
Un vas medieval timpuriu descoperit la Curtuişeni (judeţul Bihor)
An Early Medieval Pot Discovered at Curtuişeni (Bihor County)
In the year 2013 at the locality of Curtuişeni in Bihor County, at the number 203 a ceramic pot was discovered by chance, on the design of a cellar. It is a pot-jar that through its technological, typological and stylistic characteristics wide fits in the period of the 8th -10th centuries, with the author’s option for the 9th and 10th centuries.
5. Tiberiu Alexandru CIORBA
Impactul cultului Sfântului Thomas Becket în Anglia şi Europa de Vest (secolele XII-XIII)
The Impact of the Cult of Saint Thomas Becket in England and Western Europe during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century
Saint Thomas Becket of Canterbury has been one of the most influential and important saints in English history since his martyrdom in the second half of the XII century. This essay is aimed at following the traits and impact of his cult, both in England and abroad, especially in Western Europe. The main goal of the article is to see how deep was the influence of Saint Thomas and how did it start. To reach this purpose, both primary and secondary sources will be used, starting from the early Vitaes, and continuing with modern papers that have analyzed Saint Thomas and his life. His miracles will be put in consideration but only from a historical perspective and not a theological one. This article isn’t constructed from a religious point of view but from a scientific one. Therefore, any and all arguments regarding the veridicity of the miracles will not be taken into account. Art forms like frescoes or stained glass will be presented so that the geographical widespread of the cult can be seen.
6. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO
Pier Paolo Vergerio il vecchio, ‘referendario’ dell’imperatore Sigismondo di Lussemburgo
Peter Paul Vergerius the Elder, ‘referendarius’ of Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg
Peter Paul Vergerius (1370-1444?) was one of the most learned men of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. His presence in the Council of Constance (1414-18) represents a crucial step for his career and life, because here he met Sigismund of Luxemburg, whom he followed to Buda in Hungary, where he settled permanently. Once in Hungary, Peter Paul Vergerius devoted himself mainly to juridical activity as ‘referendarius’ of the king of the Romans. Peter Paul Vergerius accompanied Sigismund in his travels as ‘utriusque juris doctor’ participating in the assizes which were held in various cities affected by the royal court. Perhaps, he also accompanied him in his campaigns against the Turks, if it is true – as some scholars assume – he wrote a work on the enterprises of the king of the Romans, De gestis Sigismundi Regis Pannoniae, now lost. Certainly, he accompanied him in the campaigns against the Ussites. However, Vergerius did not follow Sigismund during his journey to Italy for the imperial coronation in 1431 to 33: some time before he had already left the scene, after the death of Philip Scolari and the departure from Hungary of Cardinal Branda Castiglione, Bartolomeo della Capra and Ognibene della Scola. Vergerius, however, remained in Buda, even if abandoned by his friends and by the rulers who succeeded Sigismund. Through the intercession of Ambrose Traversari, he then sought the protection of the Bishop of Oradea, John de Dominis, who invited him to his diocese. His stay in Oradea was decisive for the development of the Italian-Hungarian cultural relations, because in Oradea Vergerius also met Gregory of Sanok and John Vitéz, the future great chancellor at the court of Matthias Corvinus. In Oradea were certainly held various ‘symposia’ among Vergerius, Vitéz, Gregory of Sanok and the Cypriot Philip Podocataro, host of Vitéz. In any case, these meetings were decisive for the development of humanism in Hungary.
7. Răzvan Mihai NEAGU
Cardinali ai bisericii romano-catolice deţinători de beneficii ecleziastice în diecezele de Transilvania, Oradea şi Cenad în secolul al XIV-lea
Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church who Held Ecclesiastical Benefits in the Dioceses of Transylvania, Oradea And Cenad in the 14th Century
The cardinals have been and still are the closest collaborators of the pope. They make up the Sacred College led by a decane, who was the bishop-cardinal of Ostia and a Camerleng (Camerlengo), in charge of managing the assets. The cardinals are divided into three orders: cardinal-bishop, cardinal-priest and cardinal-deacon. The responsibilities and positions held by the cardinals evolved in time. In the Avignon age of papacy (1305-1378), 134 cardinals were created. During this period of time, the Sacred College became a government organism for the church and the cardinals held notable positions. The French popes appointed cardinals even from amaong their on families, especially nephews. This was the case of cardinal Guillaume of La Jugié, the nephew of pope Clement VI. The French cardinal was gratified in Hungary, by the pope, with a series of ecclesiastical benefits, even in the dioceses of Transylvania, where he held the position of archdeacon of Alba, archdeacon of Torontal, as well as canon of Oradea. All these dignities were remunerated. The cardinal found difficulties in entering the possession of his benefits, being impeded by the bishop of Transylvania. Neither was king Louis of Anjou in favour of a cardinal’s holding ecclesiastical benefits in Hungary. In 1367, cardinal Guillaume of La Jugié was in Hungary on the occasion of the consecration of Dominic, the bishop of Cenad, in the position of archbishop of Calocea. Another French cardinal, who held the position of provost of the cathedral chapter of Oradea, was Bertrand de Déaulx. During Western Schism, cardinal Philippe of Alencon occupied the position of provost of the cathedral chapter of Oradea between 1395-1397.
8. Andrea FARA
An Outline of Livestock Production and Cattle Trade From Hungary to Western Europe in Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period (14th-16th Centuries)
Agriculture – particularly of grain and wine – was an important sector in the economic structure of the Kingdom of Hungary since the twelfth century. Nevertheless, it was the livestock breeding to maintain a central economic role. The Hungarian lands produced and exported mainly raw materials, as mentioned agricultural products and livestock, but also minerals and metals such as iron, copper, salt, gold and silver. Goods of great importation were instead the luxury ones: textiles, jewels and fine crafts from the West; hides, wool, textiles, wax and spices from the East. Part of the imported goods merely transited in the Hungarian lands to reach eastern or western Europe. Between late Middle Ages and early Modern Period, the general characteristics of the production and exchange structures of the Kingdom remained almost unchanged. Although the Hungarian products had a slow but steady increase in prices, these prices remained lower in respect of those of similar goods from western Europe: so the exchange between the Hungarian raw materials and Western products remained very profitable. In this context, in spite of wars and general rise in prices, breeding and cattle trade offered great economic opportunities both in investment and profit for many operators, local and otherwise.
9. M. Marcella FERRACCIOLI, Gianfranco GIRAUDO
Între spirit de cruciadă şi viziune geopolitică: Ţara Românească, Moldova şi Transilvania în scrierile lui Minuccio Minucci
Between Crusading Spirit and Geopolitical Vision: Wallachia, and Transylvania in the Correspondence of Minuccio Minucci
Diplomat, Bishop and humanist, born in 1551 in Seravalle del Friuli, Minuccio Minucci has completed university studies in law at Padua, after which he put himself at the service of Count Bartolomeo di Porcia, apostolic nuncio in Germany. On the death of his superior, he offered its services to the Cardinal of Trento, Ludovico Madruzzo. Between 1584 and 1586 he was adviser to the Duke of Bavaria, then became its representative to the Holy See. In Vatican served as secretary of popes Innocent IX and Clement VIII. During his stay in Germany and then in Rome, Minucci has acquired multiple knowledges about the situation of the Eastern European countries, playing an important role in attracting Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania on the alliance against Ottomans. Minucci left us an impressive literary heredity, by quantity and diversity of themes, his work manuscript called Minucciana comprising 40 volumes in quarto is dated to the early seventeenth century. As chief representative of Catholicism, Minucci took action against „heretics” and especially Giorgio Blandrata which he dedicated a pamphlet. In it is related the death of Blandrata, a controversial character chief from the period of Reform, mainly due to his religious options, alternating between Catholicism and Calvinism, which can hardly be considered sincere.
10. Florina CIURE
Cucerirea Oradiei de către otomani (1660) în surse veneţiene contemporane
The Conquest of Oradea by the Ottomans (1660) in contemporary Venetian sources
This paper presents the weekly reports sent by the Venetian ambassador to the Habsburg Empire, Alvise Molin, on the events in the summer of 1606 that led to the conquest of Oradea by the Ottomans. News of Oradea fall into the hands of the Ottomans and its immediate consequences have been submitted by Alvise Molin from 9 September 1660 to 22 January 1661. From this reports we can find out also the opinions of the ambassador about the passive attitude of the Habsburgs, Molin continuind during its official mission to militate for a military intervention of the Imperials in Transylvania. The letters regularly sent by the ambassador to the Venetian authorities hosted in the fund Senato Secreta in the Venetian Archives, provides new evidences about a tumultuous period in the history of Transylvania in the seventeenth century. They attest, however, the level of knowledge of the realities of this part of Europe by the central authorities of the Republic of St. Mark, concerned that the Turks should be involved as much as possible on the Transylvanian front.
11. Ciprian-Doru RIGMAN
Consideraţii privind organizarea şi desfăşurarea învăţământului elementar în Episcopia greco-catolică de Gherla la mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea (1856-1868)
Considerations on The Organization and Development of the Elementary Schools in the Greek-Catholic Diocese of Gherla in the Middle of the 19th Century (1856-1868)
The theme of the Romanian elementary school has been central to both new and older historians thus the research on the topic is quite consistent. One of the reasons for the interest of historians in the evolution of the Romanian school in Transylvania in the 19th century is related to its role as a symbol of the Romanian identity, alongside the Church. After a brief general introduction on the elementary school system in the middle of the 19th century, from the neo-absolutism times, through the liberal times and the beginning of the dual Austro-Hungarian regime, the current paper will explore the organization of the school system, such as the duration of the school year, the teaching language in elementary school, the subjects taught, the teaching methods used by the teachers, the situation of the school books, the attendance by students, and the results of school exams, the most accurate measure of an efficient teaching process.
12. Doina-Gabriela ANANIE
Tipografia „Patria” – prima tipografie românească din Oradea (1905)
Patria – The First Romanian Printing House in Oradea
The establishment of Romanian printing houses in Transylvania was possible due to the contributions, mainly financial ones, received from individuals, church men and cultural institutions. In Oradea, the first Romanian printing house was founded in 1905, by a young and bold printer, George Magyar. The decision of Iosif Vulcan, the editor of Familia, one of the most important Romanian publications of that time, to move his revue to the new printing house, was an important step and, in the same time, a spring board for the young printer. Although the collaboration didn’t last long, the impact that it had hasn’t remained unnoticed. Even the name that was chosen for the printing house, Patria, was a symbolic one, one that makes us think about hope and unity.
13. Sorin FARCAŞ
Eliminarea seminariştilor români din Seminarul Latin din Oradea în anul 1912
The Expulsion of Romanians Seminarists of the Latin Seminary of Oradea in 1912
This article explains the expulsion of sixteen Romanians students from the Roman Catholic Seminar “Magno-Varadiensis” of Oradea. The reason behind this decision: they spoke Romanian without permission in the seminary. This study presents the social, political and historical background, the consequences of this decision and mainly the reaction of the two opposite sides involves: the Roman Catholic Seminary and his Bishop, the count Széchenyi and the Greek Catholic Seminary and his Bishop, Demetriu Radu. The expulsion of the Romanian seminarists was intensively mediatized in Romanian and Hungarian press. The sacrifice of the 16 Romanian seminarists by the Roman Catholic Seminary was the turning point who made the Romanian greek-catholic bishop, Demetriu Radu, to found in same year, 1912 the Theological Academy of Oradea. Finally, the 16 Romanian seminarists manage to complete their studies in other seminaries across the Austrian Empire.
14. Gabriel MOISA
Între mica şi marea istorie. Nicolae Coroiu: un destin sub vremurile Primului Război Mondial
Between the History of the Individual and History. Nicolae Coroiu: A Destiny in the Times of the First World War
Nicolae Coroiu takes us to follow history in all extremities Romanian space prewar, interwar and postwar. His destiny is very interesting and closely linked to the fate of the nation it belongs in this century. Life it bears such the viscous Oradea, Cluj and Bazargic and from there to Chisinau and Hotin, Zalau, Şimleul Silvaniei and Bucharest after that, in the context of establishment of the communist regime, lies in Oradea and, finally, after retirement, in Vascauti native of southern Bihar. This does not mean the end of his wanderings. Makes a “last call” forced Piatra Neamt, where “benefits” from house arrest in mid-50s it becomes, like many of interwar Romanian elite, “enemy of the people”. The topic has been approached Nicholas Coroiu partly based on sequential recovery Nicholas Coroiu exclusive manuscript. This study represents a broader investigation, which is based on a documentary resource and a more extensive bibliography which enhances the understanding of our destiny submitted to this volume.
15. Iudita CĂLUȘER
Festivităţi regale în Oradea şi Bihor – mai 1919
Royal Festivals in Oradea and the County of Bihor – May 1919
The breakout of World War I and the subsequent events influenced the economical social life of the citizens of Oradea and the County of Bihor, who, from a political point of view, were, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the four years of war, 1914-1918, life in Oradea meant an ongoing struggle for survival. The conception of the “Declaration of self-determination of the Romanian People”, on the 12th October, represented an entirely historic moment. The delegacy of the citizens of Bihor voted for the improvement of the state unity on the 1st December 1918 at Alba Iulia even though the armed conflicts hadn’t been over yet. The activity of the communist groups was being intensified in March establishing the proletarian dictatorship of Kun Bela which lasted by 18th April 1919. The leadership of the town, directed by major Rimler Karoly, appealed to the Romanian commandment of the 6th Division in Tileagd, on the 19th to 20th April, asking for help. The entrance of the Romanian Army ruled by Traian Mosoiu had the significance of freedom, even though it took place in a perfect silence and order, making possible the introduction of the Romanian administration. For Oradea this marked the end of the war and the beginning of a new era. We proposed in this study to treat two important moments in the history of the city and the County of Bihor: the celebration of the Romanian Royalty Day – on the 10th May – and the visit of Romania’s sovereigns to Oradea, which were forbidden subjects in previous years. Censorship didn’t allow the evocation of the facts committed by the royal family, even though its contribution was remarkable for the national history. We chose to present some less known events, some “backstage”, which were approached only in passing by the authors who treated these events. We used the testimonies of the eye-witnesses of the events and also the reproduction of the historical moments in the Romanian and Hungarian media from Bihor. Due to this we used a lot of quotations for a better reproduction of that age’s spirit. The festivities dedicated to the 10th May day turned into a real royal celebration in Oradea and the county, and many citizens attended them. These were the first official manifestations dedicated to the Romanian Royal House. The official visit of the royal family is the next evoked event and it took place on the 23rd May 1919. We conveyed truthfully the preparations regarding the official reception, the moment of the sovereigns’ arrival at the railway station, the religious service at the “Moon Church”, the army’s parade but also that of the county’s villagers. An important moment was the reception of the cult’s representations and the cultural artistic and financial officials by King Ferdinand and Queen Maria.
16. Sabina HORVATH
Societatea bihoreană după Marea Unire. Studiu de caz – plasa Marghita
Bihor Society After the Great Union. Case Study – Marghita Area
This work is a case study, of the situation of the population of Marghita area, in the first years after the Great Union in 1918. Population economy was unstable but political uncertainty in because the Romanian administration was brought with a several months delay, after the Union. In the study is shown how local authorities abuse the villagers from Marghita area and the „backstage” of that time’s politics.
17. Petru ARDELEAN
Slujind lui Dumnezeu şi oamenilor: Episcopul Vasile Coman al Oradiei
Serving God and People: Bishop Vasile Coman of Oradea
This article presents the complex personality of a bishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church, who was remarkable on several levels: pastoral, missionary and household. He served for a period of twenty years as bishop of Oradea, making it to bear with dignity the title “of Oradea” because it was identified with Oradea.
18. Cosmin CHIRIAC, Liviu BUCUR
Aspecte ale evoluţiei urbanistice a municipiului Oradea înainte şi după anul 1990
Urban Evolution Aspects Before and After the Year 1990, in the Municipality of Oradea
Under the communist regime, Romania underwent a series of changes, some of them with the aim of increasing the degree of urbanization of Romania. Oradea had its part in this process, with spectacular economic and demographic developments (as far as their scale is concerned). After the fall of communism, this course of events changed having an impact on the evolution of the city. The purpose of this study is to compare the developments before and after the year 1990, outlining the differences and showing how the former affected the latter emphasizing some of the causes behind this evolution. Finally, demographical data are used to outline future evolution possibilities from this perspective.
PUNCTE DE VEDERE / POINTS OF VIEW
A POSSIBLE OR CERTAIN DEITY FIGURE?
Starting from the interdisciplinary condition of the present state of sciences, the author resorts to a logical and comparative study of the archaeological pieces called the ‘Dacian bracelets’. The conclusion proposed to this analysis is that these pieces are actually the figure of the earth deity Ge-beleisi. Consequently, they were not hidden in the ground but deposed there as a ritual underneath or near nature altars.
RECENZII / BOOK REVIEWS
- Rozalia Barta, Omagierea lui Eminescu în colecţii de afişe (1980-2015), Editura Geea, Botoşani, 2015, 152 p. (Gabriel Moisa)
- Marius EPPEL, La frontiera ortodoxiei româneşti. Vicariatul de la Oradea 1848-1918, Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 2012, 239 p. (Radu Romînașu)
- Kordics Imre, Nagyvárad jelentősebb utcanevei 1940-1944 között (Denumirile purtate de străzile reprezentative ale Oradiei între 1940-1944), Asociaţia pentru Protejarea Monumentelor şi a Locurilor Comemorative din Partium şi Banat, Oradea, 2014, 251 p. (Ronald Hochhauser)