Crisia 2013, XLIII
STUDII / STUDIES
1. Ioan F. POP
Literatura augustiniană ca intermediaritate
Augustinian Literature as Intermediarity
Having become wellknown even during his lifetime, Saint Augustine wasappreciated in that period especially as a brilliant man of literature. Beforebeing a man of “God’s Word”, he was, in its deepest meaning, a man ofword. Of that word which is definitely involved in the understanding of thedouble hypostasis of man and world, as well, especially of the one regardingthe re-born man as being meant to stand for the fallen angels. By hisfundamental work entitled Confessions, Saint Augustine initiates a literarygenre which had been unknown before: that of spiritual-biographicconfession, made with matchless talent and honesty. Nevertheless, along theages, he had imposing imitators as J.J. Rousseau or L. Tolstoi. His Confessionsare a severe inner monologue, an autoscopic exercise performed in view, butalso a transparent dialogue with God held by means of the deepest ego.
2. Corina TOMA
Tezaurul din aşezarea dacică de la Tăşad – produse finite ale atelierului sau piese de podoabă deteriorate
The Hoard from the Dacian Settlement in Tasad – Finished Products from the Workshop or Damaged Costume Accessories and Jewelry Pieces
The uniqueness of the hoard from Tasad (Bihor County) is conferred by the circumstances and context of its discovery, but also by its composition. When he first published the lot, N. Chidioşan classified the lot of artifacts found inside the workshop as illustrating a complete cycle of production, which contained finished products (knotted brooches and a necklace), unfinished products still in work (a bracelet or a necklace) and raw materials (two silver bars). The present reopening of the discussion regarding this hoard, based on the direct observation of the items and their conservation level, in addition to information published in 1977, will cover the following two aspects: The necklace is either a “one of a kind” item or the result of archaeological restoration that might have joined two different pieces from the workshop’s inventory: a stiff necklace and a fragmentary chain made of twisted segments. The finished products (the knotted brooches, the stiff necklace and the chain), showing heavy signs of wearing especially around areas of maximum stress, are items which were produced in the workshop where they were found and were destroyed by the craftsman before they were abandoned on the floor, or they are damaged ornaments that were brought in to be repaired.
3. Corina TOMA
Observaţii asupra compoziţiei tezaurului monetar din secolele XIV-XV descoperit la Batăr (jud. Bihor)
A Fourteenth-fifteenth-century Coin Hoard from Batar (Bihor County, Romania)
This article is part of a longer series that aims to present the medieval coin hoards preserved in the numismatic collection of the MTCO. The present article focuses on a hoard that contains coins issued by Sigismund of Luxembourg, King of Hungary (1387-1437) and a few denarii minted by his wife, Queen Mary. The hoard was probably found around 1973 in the proximity of Batar village (in Bihor County). The purpose of this paper is to present the composition of the hoard and to analyze it in comparison to other monetary Transylvanian lots consisting, almost exclusively, of denarii and parvi issued by Sigismund of Luxembourg. This hoard is problematic due to the presence of older and newer coins (an obol and a denarius issued by Louis I and a denarius issued by John Hunyadi), which were not mentioned in the inventory register at the time when the coins were acquired. The inclusion of these coins in the hoard from Batar, based on structural analogies with other similar Transylvanian lots of coins, is just a hypothesis. Due to the alteration of its composition after the discovery, its date of burial remains uncertain: during the reign of King Sigismund, sometime between the years 1405 and 1427, or in the beginning of John Hunyadi’s government.
4. Răzvan Mihai NEAGU
Politica beneficială a Papei Clement al VI-lea în Dieceza de Oradea
The Beneficial Policy of Pope Clement VI in the Diocese of Oradea
The aim of this study is to present and analyse the involvement of pope Clement VI in the appointments of the various religions benefits in the dioceses of Oradea. Thus, the French pontiff actively involved himself in the appointments of the bishops of Oradea. The key moment of this enterprise, as well as its departure point, was represented by the papal acts on October 8th 1325, trough which pope John XXII reserved his exclusive right to appoint the bishops of Györ, Oradea, Pécs and Transylvania. Starting from this moment, which marks the official beginning of the papal involvement in the Eastern Hungarian dioceses, the French pontiffs substituted themselves to the local church institutions in granting the various ecclesiastical positions. The bishopric of Oradea comprised the following archdeaconships: Bihor, Bekes, Homorog, Călata, Zeghalm, Coleser. The most intense beneficial policy in the diocese of Oradea was led by pope Clement VI, who appointed 23 canons and one bishop, Dumitru on July 15th 1345. At Oradea were appointed canons, especially from the kingdom of Hungary, although there were also some of foreign origin, out of whom stood out those of Italian origin. The ecclesiastical benefits in the bishopric of Oradea were given by Clement VI at the intervention of some extremely influential persons, both laic and ecclesiastical, whose desire was to reward their close relatives with such positions that granted financial income. In many cases in which ecclesiastical persons intervened, the main issue was the distribution of religious benefits to close relatives.
5. Mihai GEORGIŢĂ
Legăturile lui Sigismund de Luxemburg cu Oradea şi mărturii privind mormântul său din cetate
Relations of Sigismund von Luxemburg with Oradea and proofs about his grave of the citadel
The King of Hungary Sigismund von Luxemburg, who became Roman-German emperor in 1414, had a special relation with Oradea. There happened important things during his reign therefore he wanted to be buried in the Saint Maria cathedral from citadel, where his first wife and the Saint King Ladislau were buried too. Along the time, there are many proofs about his grave and about a great treasure hidden in the citadel, wanted by all that had come to rule the city Oradea. The treasure was looked by the Ottomans too, when they conquered the citadel in 1660, but parts from treasure and grave were discovered by the Austrians in 1755, a discover confirmed by archaelogic researches from the beginning of 20th century.
6. Ioan CRIŞAN
Cercetări arheologice de diagnostic pe teritoriul comunei suburbane Sânmartin (Judeţul Bihor)
Archaeological research of diagnosis on the territory of the suburban village Sânmartin (Bihor County)
The archaeological research of diagnosis on the territory of the suburban village Sânmartin, located near Oradea, were carried out in order to prepare the General Urban Plan of this village. During the research, were discovered four new archaeological sites and identified two isolated pieces: a bronze axe (celt) and a medieval millstone.
7. Gizella NEMETH, Adriano PAPO
Il caso ‘Bernardo de Aldana’: l’abbandono di Lippa/Lipova e le sue conseguenze. 1552-1556
The ‘Bernardo de Aldana’ case: the abandonment of Lippa/Lipova and its consequences. 1552-1556
In the spring-summer of 1552 the Ottoman army led by the second vizier Ahmed pasha tried again to conquest Timişoara after the unsuccessful attempt made in autumn 1551 by the beylerbeyi of Rumelia Mehmed Soqollu. The siege of Timişoara lasted long and was very bloody: both the town and the fortress were continuously bombarded for about one month. At the end, Timişoara capitulated because of lack of victualing and ammunition. Lest the Ottoman army should occupy also Lipova after the conquest of Timişoara, the commandant of the fortress of Lipova, the Spanish Bernardo de Aldana, determined to abandon the castle as well as to make it explode before leaving. Aldana was imprisoned and, later on, tried in Vienna after a preliminary inquiry set up by General Giovanni Battista Castaldo, the commander-in-chief of the Habsburgic army in Transylvania. After being condemned both to death and to attachment of his personal goods, in 1556 he was released but not pardoned and handed over to the king of Spain, Philip II, who entrusted him with the command of artillery in Piedmont and Lombardy.
8. Alexandru POP
Un reţetar farmaceutic din anul 1761
A pharmaceutical recipe 1761
The author presents a notebook-manuscript: “A Collection of selected rare medical prescription receipts” on 312 filigreed paperpages containing about 500 recipesbased on “materiamedica”of over 400 substances. The manuscript is important from various points of view: its itinerary throughout Central Europe, the exposure and evaluation of the “material medica” the usage of old chemical symbols(iatrochemistry) and the application of weight based system, the last two aspects being presented in detail.
9. Augustin MUREŞAN
Un tipar sigilar din 1816 al Breslei Unite din Lugoj
A Seal of the United Guild of Lugoj 1816
The author presents a seal belonging to the United Guild of Lugoj, dating from 1816. This seal is included in the category of heraldic seals. On the emblem, there are representations of the craftsmen who joined this professional association: carpenters, macons, glaziers, locksmiths, braziers, blacksmith (making nails or spurs), wheelwrights and saddlers.
10. Carmen GÎRDAN, Alexandru POP
Pixide din patrimoniul farmaciei „Remedio” 58 din Oradea
Pyxides from the Patrimony of the “Remedio” 58 Pharmacy from Oradea
This study presents 13 pyxides (wooden cylindrical vessels) remained in heritage of Pharmacy Remedio 58 from Oradea, successor of Pharmacy “Pomegranate”, a Monastic Order Misericordian, opened in 1770. In the 1949 inventory, Pharmacy “Pomegranate” had more than 150 pyxides. It explains how, for aesthetic reasons, medicinal fluid consistency could be kept inside those pyxides.
11. M. Marcella FERRACCIOLI, Gianfranco GIRAUDO
Il Privilegio di Sigismondo Imperatore ad Andrea Donà, Patrizio Veneziano
The Privilege of Emperor Sigismund Offered to Andrea Donà, Venetian Patrician
From the collections of the Museo Correr in Venice will be analysed an unusual privilege granted by Sigismund to the Venetian patrician Andrea Donà, whose personal and political actions have quite a few ambiguities. Will be presented the complete transcription of the Latin text, preceded by a profile of Donà and an analysis of relations within the Venetian nobility and the complex political relations between the Republic and the Empire in the first third of the fifteenth century.
12. Blaga MIHOC
Salarii, burse şi împrumuturi. Contribuţii la istoria Eparhiei greco-catolice de Oradea
Salaries, scholarships, loans. Contributions to the history of the Greek Catholic Diocese of Oradea
Due to its wealth, the Greek Catholic Diocese of Oradea funded many academic institutions, during several years, as we pointed out in this work. At the beginning the salaries of the teachers from these institutions were low, but in years, the bishops Mihail Pavel and Demetrie Radu took care of increasing them. They, also were the ones who ordered that it would be given, from the funds of the Diocese, scholarships to the poor and good at learning children. Some of their names and the value of their scholarship, sequenced by year are presented by the author. Likewise, in the above mentioned work it is mentioned the names of some parishioners who borrowed money from the funds of the Diocese, as well as some of their demands to be exempted from the charge of interests. The presentation of these datas completes the information about the charitable activities of the Catholic Church, and by this, at a local scale of course, its significance in the history of the Romanian people.
13. Eugen Radu SAVA
Din istoricul Parohiei Române Greco-Catolice Craidorolţ şi Pr. Mureşan Dumitru
From the history of the romanian Greek-Catholic parish of Craidorolţ and Priest Mureşan Dumitru
In this study, the author publishes pieces of information about the Romanian Greek Catholic Church from Craidorolţ, the county of Satu Mare, in the north-western part of Romania. This piece of work shows an analogy of many priests who led the spiritual fates from this village. In particular, it highlights the history of the period from 1946 to 1956, when at the helm of this settlement was the Greek Catholic priest Dumitru Mureşan. Fugitive, he was hidden in different places, celebrating underground church services. Followed by the communist regime, he was arrested in 1958 and sentenced to 20 years of prison because of his affiliation to the Greek Catholic Church, in the so-called “batch Tămâian” along with 12 other people that gathered priests and faithful believes of this religion.
14. Doina-Gabriela ANANIE
Judeţul Bihor – numărul de biserici, şcoli, cămine culturale şi dispensare în anul 1943
Bihor County – number of churches, schools, cultural houses and hospitals in 1943
The life of the Romanians, Hungarians and other nationalities changed dramatically after the Vienna Arbitration. The number of churches, schools, hospitals decreased. The statistic presents the number of these institutions which remained in the free area of Bihor county. The measures taken were required by the state of war. The main priority was the safety of the people, weather they were refugees from Bihor or from other parts of occupied Transylvania.
15. Gabriel MOISA
Organizaţia anticomunistă condusă de Adrian Mihuţ (1948-1956)
The Anti-Communist Organization Led by Adrian Mihuţ (1948-1956)
Son of a farmer in Maderat, Arad was AThe Anti-Communist Organization Led by Adrian Mihuţ (1948-1956)drian Mihuţ (Mihuţiu) high school student „Avram Iancu” Deva, and in 1943 King Michael congratulated for the baccalaureate obtained the best average in the country. During high school he meditated boys Petru Groza. He continued his studies at the Polytechnic brilliant and was almost finished when, in 1948, began the arrests. Presumed to have been part of the „brotherhood of the cross”, managed to escape from those who follow him and headed back woods, becoming a weapon in hand, a formidable opponent of the communist regime.
16. Marin POP
Corneliu Coposu în lagărul de muncă forţată de la Capul Midia (1950-1952)
Coposu forced labor camp at Cape Midia (1950-1952)
Coposu was arrested on 14 July 1947 at the NPP, with the entire leadership of the NPP, following the large trap to Tamadau Security. After remaining closed in several communist prisons and subjected to numerous investigations, on November 14, 1950, was transferred to Coposu work unit no. 1, from Cape Midia, the detachment no. 14, an administrative penalty of 2 years. Newcomers were divided into barracks, which were located inside a barbed wire enclosure. Were not allowed to receive food parcels from home or money. Also speaking were not entitled to. Were distributed to outlets. Coposu was assigned to the same wagon with Serban Ghica. Prisoners from the other squads who benefit from the package and some money to help those of Detachment 14 with food: cigarettes, bread, meat, etc. With regard to the real conditions of work and food, Coposu story after the Revolution that the Canal were turned into guinea pigs and subjected to extermination. Norma was a prisoner twice higher than that set by the Ministry of Construction. Failure superhuman rule was punished with solitary harsh colonial rule at night and cutting food. Coposu group around him continues to resist, as evidenced by the report in April 1952 that management submit it DGPCUM colony Bucharest Inspection Service. Thus, although the two years of detention at Cape Midia Coposu closes for the November 14, 1952, to June 8 of that year, along with other political prisoners Serban Ghica and his group were taken to Camp Ghencea sorting. In approximately 3 weeks after their arrival here, were sent to the farm Bragadiru, picking tomatoes.
17. Camelia BURGHELE
Identitate şi alteritate în satele româneşti din dreapta Tisei: un context etno-cultural eclectic
Identity and alterity: a multicultural context
The Romanian villages of Trans-Carpathia are radically different from the rest of the (Ukrainian, Slovak, Hungarian) villages because of the villagers’ wellbeing. This is a vital argument in outlining an identity profile for the Romanians, obtained by comparison to the other ethnicities within the same geographical area and social status. Based onto this remark we are looking to accomplish a collective study on dynamic identity/alterity mechanisms: how do Romanians perceive themselves concerning their social and material status and how the other ethnicities perceive them – of which the majority of Ukrainians are the most important, and weather this gives them a special status. Socially and culturally, Romanians in Trans-Carpathia build a well-defined identity within the ever tougher Ukrainian and/or Russian globalization – a Slavic one – while focusing onto some historical cultural landmarks. A very important identity element is found within the title Romanians across Tisa use for themselves: though they were never a part of the “Great Romania”, the Romanians here proudly call themselves “Little Romania”.
RECENZII / BOOK REVIEWS
- Barbu Ştefănescu, Între pâini, Editura Academia Română, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Cluj Napoca, 2012 (Ioan Ciorba)
- Teodora-Camelia Cristofor (editor), Ştefan Procopiu-mărturii documentare, Editura Palatul Culturii, Iaşi, 2012, 316 p. (Ronald Hochhauser)