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ISSN: 1016 – 2798, Frecvenţă de apariţie: anuală, Categorie CNCSIS: B+ (2010)

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Numarul XXXIX, 2009


Colectivul de redacţie:


Redactor responsabil al publicaţiilor Muzeului Ţării Crişurilor: Dr. Aurel Chiriac

Colegiu de redacţie: Sorin Bulzan, Iudita Căluşer, Florina Ciure, Lucia Cornea, Gruia Fazecaş, Călin Ghemiş, Lakatos Attila, Doru Marta, Blaga Mihoc, Gabriel Moisa – secretar de redacţie, Corina Toma, Tóth János

Consiliu ştiinţific:

Prof. univ. dr. Cesare Alzati – Universita Catolica Del Sacro Cuore, Milano

Prof. univ. dr. Mihai Bărbulescu – Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Academician Nicolae Edroiu - Institutul de Istorie “George Bariţ” Cluj-Napoca

Dr. György Feiszt – Vas County Archives of Szombathely

Prof.univ. dr. Gianfranco Giraudo – Universitatea Ca’Foscari din Veneţia

Prof. univ. dr. László Gróf - Oxford Military College

Prof. univ. dr. Francesco Leoncini - Universitatea Ca’Foscari din Veneţia

Prof. univ. dr. Ovidiu Pecican - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Academician Ioan Aurel Pop - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Prof. univ. dr. Doru Radosav - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca



Articole:


  1. Cristian I. POPA, Viorel ŞTEFU, THE ANTLER SCEPTRE FROM COŢOFENI SETTLEMENT OF BOARTA (SIBIU COUNTY)
    limba articolului: Engleză, pagina 7

    THE ANTLER SCEPTRE FROM COŢOFENI SETTLEMENT OF BOARTA (SIBIU COUNTY)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    The scepter from Boarta-Cetăţuie throws a new light on the moment of penetration in the north of the Danube area of this kind of prestige artifacts, described by Homer for the Greek world. Mace-type antler, with plug at one end appear, therefore, during the final phase of the Coţofeni culture, much earlier than it was known until now, through the discoveries from Middle Bronze Age (in the area of Wietenberg and Otomani cultures). A possible link about the perpetuation of such luxury goods in the Carpathian Basin could be the marble scepter with longitudinal and transversal perforation discovered at Girişul de Criş-Alceu between levels 1 and 2, in a ceramic horizon dated at the end of Early Bronze Age.

    The scepter from Boarta, underlines, once again, if needed, the important place occupied by the Boarta settlement among Coţofeni sites from Transylvania. It joins a rare discovery here, ritual-related manifestation such as bucranium plaque-type idol1, or the two plastic anthropomorphic artifacts, filling in an unexpected way our picture about the spiritual life and social stratification of Coţofeni communities. Here, through this discovery we have one more proof of the fact that among these populations, local leaders have risen over time, with some claims at that time.


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  2. Victor Sava, DESCOPERIRI NEOLITICE ŞI DE EPOCA BRONZULUI LA MACEA „TOPILA” (JUDEŢUL ARAD)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 17

    NEOLITHIC AND BRONZE AGE DISCOVERIES FROM MACEA „TOPILA” (ARAD COUNTY)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    One of the main tasks of an archaeologist is to provide the general public or the specialis with information of its research. During more than a century, when archeology was institutionalize, in Romania, many archaeologists have forgotten or ignored this natural function of their trade. As a proof for the above statement are the unpublished archaeological collections. Therefore any action undertaken in order to facilitate the publishing of any archaeological collection must be supported. Bellow I will analyze the artifacts discovered at Macea „Topila”. This archaeological objective has been often the victim of local amateurs.

    Macea village is located in Arad county, 23 km south of the Arad municipium and 7,5 km east of the border with Hungaria (Pl. I/1). The site is at an equal distance between the Mureş and Crişul Alb Rivers. In terms of relief, Macea is a part of Arad Plain which represents a smaller unit of the Western Plain of Romania.

    Following the field research conducted in April 2009, by Victor Sava, Florin Mărginean and George P. Hurezan, the site was located at 2,20 km East-South-East from Macea village (Pl. I/2; II/1). The potsherds were collected from a wide area, 450 m, on the North-South axis and 550 m, on the East-Vest axis. The tell extends over a maximum of 24,4 hectares. At a first view the tell, at least on the Eastern and South-Western side, appears to be surrounded by a ditch, with also represents the limit of the settlement. It is worth mentioning that the ditch, at its Eastern side, is visible on aerial photos, or Google Earth (Pl. II/1).

    The Macea „Topila” site makes its appearance in the archaeological literature in 1971 with a study written by Eugen Comşa, dedicated to „Banat” flint type. Here the site is noted as being a part of the distribution range of this flint type and the artifacts discovered here were chronologically defined as Tisa. Some years later, 1976, Petre Roman published in a study “the transitional period to the Bronze Age” archaeological material which was at that time in the Arad Museum collections. Among the ceramics published, there were several from Macea “Topila” that were defined as Cernavoda III-Boleráz. Others studies that mentiones the site resume the information from the articles quoted above.

    In April 1955 was made an excavation by a group of amateurs, led by Ferenc Kovács. The excavation consists in a 10 m long and 2 m wide section. In the following years were made several field research organized by Museum of Arad specialists, but also by amateurs from Arad County.

    Neolithic

    For the Neolithic potsherds there are five types of temper: sand; silt and sand; chaff and sand; silt and chaff; silt; sand and chaff. The most numerous ceramics have been tempered with silt and sand, followed by silt and chaff; sand. The last two, chaff and sand; silt, sand and chaff, were rarely encountered. In the majority of cases the ceramics are well smoothed. Most of the pottery is oxidant burned. The colors of the ceramics are bric/red, bric/red-reddish and gray.

    Arad Museum has a limited number of artifacts discovered at Macea “Topila”, but representative for the chronological framework of the site. Until now we have limited analogies from Arad area, this is due to the brief publications and because of the unpublished excavations or field research conducted over the years. In terms of relative chronology, Macea “Topila” site belongs to Vinèa C/Bucovăţ III/late Szakálhát/Tisa I sequence.

    Bronze Age

    The temper categories are the same as the Neolithic pottery, burning is both oxidant and reductant, the burning quality is very good, the color is bric/red or gray, all of the ceramic fragments are polished.

    It can be said with certainty that this type of ceramic material represented by Macea “Topila” discoveries belongs in terms of relative chronology to Middle Bronze Age, Cornesti-Crvenka group.

    Next I would like to talk about a very interesting artifact, both as aspect and as functionality. The artifact is registered under number 13667 (Pl. X/1/1a; XII) and it was discovered by András Susan in 1960, digging a pit. Similar artifacts have been discovered at Klárafalva, a Mureş culture tell and at Békés, Otomani culture.

    Defining the functionality of such artifacts can be a sinuous process. For the Klárafalva artifact the context is clear, it was excavated around the interior hearth, the functionality is not specified. Concerning the fragment from Békés, the authors point out that this fragment is a piece of hearth.

    For our artifact the situation is somewhat different, we do not know anything about the context of discovery, but the functionality is easily recognized due its form. We should remember that the interior is secondary burned, the conical bottom is perfectly suitable to attach a stick, to make it more easily maneuverable. The artifacts form points to a torch, a sort of mobile lighting device. Given these data I believe that the artifacts discovered at Klárafalva, Békés and Macea represents lighting containers.

    Discussion upon the so-called Cernavoda III-Boleráz discoveries

    The publication of the first artifacts from Macea “Topila” is due to Petre Roman in 1976. After a brief description of the archaeological material, he associated Macea to other Cernavodă III sites from Arad Plain. As a conclusion it can be affirmed that at Macea “Topila” we are not dealing with Cernavodă III- Boleráz discoveries and the chronological and cultural framework made by Petre Roman is erroneous. A part of the archaeological material put here into question belongs to Vinèa C/Bucovăţ III/late Szakálhát/Tisa I horizon, and the other to Cornesti-Crvenka group.

    Conclusions

    Based on the few artifacts discovered here one can say that Macea „Topila” is a multilayered site. The first layer belongs to Neolithic and the second to Bronze Age. It seems that the prehistoric site was been overlaid by a necropolis whose chronology is uncertain and by a small settlement belonging to XI-XIII century A.D.


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  3. Gruia FAZECAŞ, ONE BRONZE AGE STONE AXE FROM CĂLACEA (BIHOR COUNTY)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 41

    ONE BRONZE AGE STONE AXE FROM CĂLACEA (BIHOR COUNTY)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    In spring 2008, we was informed about the existence of an archaeological and historical collection at the school of Călacea village (Olcea commune). One stone axe attracts our attention in particular and is the subject of this paper.

    In spring 2008, we was informed about the existence of an archaeological and historical collection at the school of Călacea village (Olcea commune). One stone axe attracts our attention in particular and is the subject of this paper1.

    The axe is unbroken and is presented in good condition. The exact place of discovery is unknown, about 1 km north – vest from village (see Pl. I/1). The artifact it’s made of rhyolite, an igneous rock. It has 13,5 cm. in length, 4,2 cm. in width, the shaft-hole diameter measure 2,1 cm, the neck diameter has 3,5 cm. The neck has 3,5 cm. in diameter, the blade has 4 cm. and is slightly curved and the axe surface is well polished. The horizontal profile is curved down and the shaft-hole part is enforced with a socket, to strength that stressed area (see Pl. I/2).

    Regarding the artefact, I mention only that it was not found in combination with any other archaeological material which could help us to assign this stone axe to an prehistoric culture. In Romania, the first axes picks with enforced profile at the shaft-hole and cylindrical neck appear in the Stoicani - Aldeni cultural aspect2 and continues until Late Bronze Age, in Noua culture area3. In Transylvania, first axes emerge in Coţofeni culture area4, but in west part of Romania, in Baden culture this kind of artefacts do not appear5. Many axes with cylindrical neck were found in most Early Bronze Age (EBA) cultures of Transylvania: at Zăbala6, in Schneckenberg culture area7, in Jigodin group area8. For the Early Bronze Age in central and south-eastern Transylvania are some shaft-hole axe but because are in fragmentary state, not allow us to declare for a certainty9. Nevertheless, do not know any stone axe with cylindrical neck from Bihor in Early Bronze Age.

    During the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) the stone axes number remains almoust the same, although not as high as in the Early Bronze Age, but are more carefully worked. We remind here the axe from the Giriş of Criş „Alceu” belonging to the Otomani culture10 and those most recently published from Prodăneşti and Doh belonging to Wietenberg culture11. It is also known that are very few prehistoric discoveries belonging to Neolithic, Copper Age, EBA until MBA in the low area of south Bihor county. This aspect is due of climatic and environmental conditions or insufficient knowledge of area. Summarizing, I consider that the axe from Călacea most probably belongs to late EBA – early MBA.

    It isn’t our aim to discuss issues related to usefulness, range of distribution and the function of this type of stone axes in this paper12. Usually such artifacts are associated with religious contexts or are considered as signs of prestige13. The discovery from Călacea, although modest by its nature, has nevertheless a distinct value judging from the current situation, being the first recording of an archaeological discovery in the area.


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  4. Carol Kacsó, SPADA DE BRONZ DE LA LĂPUŞ
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 45

    DAS BRONZESCHWERT VON LĂPUŞ
    Rezumat în:Germană

    Es wird ein fragmentarisches Schalenknaufschwert veröffentlicht, das 1998 zufälligerweise in der Flur Tufele Dobăneştilor, nicht weit von dem berühmten spätbronzezeitlichen Hügelnekropole entdeckt wurde. Das Fundstück wird im Museum von Baia Mare (Inv. Nr. 30584) aufbewahrt.

    Das Schwert von Lăpuş gehört zu einer seltenen Untervariante der späteren Schalenknaufschwerter. Seine genaue Analogie befindet sich im Schwertdepot von Podhoøany (Podhering, Podgorjany).

    Die Bedeutung des Schalenknaufschwertes sowie der anderen in die Stufe Spätbronzezeit 4 (Hallstatt B1) datierbaren Bronzefunde aus der Lăpuş-Senke, wie die Depotfunde von Lăpuş II und Groşii Ţibleşului I, aber auch die Tüllenbeile von Târgu Lăpuş, besteht darin, daß sie die Fortdauer der Bevölkerung dieses Gebietes in einer Zeitspanne beweisen, als die Hügelnekropolen von Lăpuş und Suciu de Sus nicht mehr in Funktion waren.

    Das Schwert von Lăpuş stellt einen Einzelfund dar. Seine vermutlich absichtliche Fragmentierung und Deponierung fand sehr wahrscheinlich im Rahmen einer religiösen Zeremonie statt.


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  5. Marius Ardeleanu, PINTENII GERMANICI DIN BARBARICUM (SEC. II-III P. CHR.)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 55

    GERMANISCHE SPOREN AUS BARBARICUM (II-III JAHRHUNDERT N. CHR.)
    Rezumat în:Germană

    Während der Marcomanischen Kriege (160-180 n.Chr.) in der Gegend der Ober-Theiß also Nord-Westen Rumäniens, Nord-Osten Ungarns, Süd-Osten Slovakiens und der Cis-Karpathischen Ukraine, finden grosse Völkerwanderungen statt. Aus diesen Völkern gelangen and der Gränze der Provinz Dacia Porolissensis die Dakern und die Vandalen. Von den Inventarteile spezifisch für die Przevorsk Kultur (die Vandalen) haben einen wichtigen Platz die Sporen. Für den besprochenen Areal hat man 38 Exemplare gefunden, die mehrheit dieser Kunstprodukte kommen aus den Gräbern. Durch ihre Form und Grösse hat man sie in mehrere Typen eingeteilt, die dem chronologischen Teil dem letzten Viertel des II Jahrhunderts und der ersten Hälfte des III Jahrhunderts n.Chr. entsprechen. Die meisten Exemplare gehören den Typen Ginalski E (20) (B2-C1a) und Ginalski G (10) (C1b). Einige entsprechen den Typen D (5 Exemplare) und F3 (2 Exemplare) nach Ginalski. Als eine Ausnahme gibt es ein früheres Exemplar der Form Ginalski C1a (I Jahrhundert n.Chr.).

    Alleine oder zusammen mit andere Kunstprodukte die spezifisch für diese Periode sind, sind diese hervorragende Datierungselemente welche die Anwesenheit der germanischen Kriegern in der Nähe und nach den Markomanischen Kriege in dem Ober- Theiß Becken bestätigen (Karte 1).


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  6. Ioan CRIŞAN, MONUMENTELE ECLEZIASTICE ROMANICE DIN BIHOR. NOI DIRECŢII DE INVESTIGAŢIE ARHEOLOGICĂ
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 75

    ROMANIC ECCLESIASTIC MONUMENTS IN BIHOR. NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION DIRECTIONS
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    Romanic type medieval ecclesiastic monuments in the north-western Romania, of which Bihor County also belongs, have drawn a lot of attention from behalf of the historians.

    Archaeologists, historians and art historians have all studied them and underlined their historic and artistic value. Based on the studies, they were included in repertoires, and from a legislative point of view they were put under a protection policy, through which local authorities and holders gained a very important role. While studying repertoires, papers and the List of historical monuments, one may notice that the number of these kinds of monuments is extremely reduced. The documentary sources of the time show that these monuments were in a greater number, but over time, most of them have disappeared. Following the geographic distribution of the Romanic ecclesiastic monuments from Bihor, known until present days, one may notice that most of them are located in the northern part of the county, on the Crisul Repede River valley, while in the southern part are fewer and in a bad shape. We believe that the southern part of the county deserves more attention from behalf of the researchers because there are clues of the existence of other monuments of such kind, besides those already known to us.

    A first category is that of the still working church edifices. Some researchers drew attention upon some churches that, under the modern cover seen today show signs that they may be older. The chronological and typological framing of the edifices uncertainly dated may be operated only after a combined study of the face of the wall and archaeological diggings. Orthodox churches from Cefa and Cotiglet are fit for such interdisciplinary investigations.

    Another category is that of the destroyed monuments whose location is marked by toponyms with a more or less significance, of positive relief forms (piles, rounded hillocks) or negative ones (pits or ditches) as well as the presence at the soil’s surface of archaeological traces (buildings material remains, ceramic fragments, human bones). Such cases are seen in Alesd, Suplacu de Tinca, Soimi, Nojorid and Bicaciu.

    Then, there are those objectives whose presence is marked only by the building material spread on the surface of the ground. The toponyms do not indicate explicitly the existence of the building foundations and even lesser a cult building destination. Agricultural works determine the spread of the materials on wider and wider surfaces, the precise location of their emplacement may be done only by terrain radiography. We may include in this category the traces from Sânmartinu de Beiuş and Cefa-La Pădure (the extinct village Rădvani). The systematic diggings in the second settlement brought to the uncovering of a hall-like church foundation with quadrilateral apse.

    The repertoire of the Romanic type churches may be further enriched with new discoveries, and “horizontal” investigations need to be deepened by archaeological

    diggings aiming to bring to the uncovering the traces. The next step would be their restoration – as it is possible – and for the working ones, not “hiding” them under modern covers but underlining the medieval elements, all in order to value them on multiple plans, including the touristic one.


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  7. Doru MARTA, DONJONUL DE LA CHERESIG (JUD. BIHOR): ISTORIC ŞI PROPUNERI DE RESTAURARE
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 83

    THE KEEP FROM CHERESIG (BIHOR COUNTY): HISTORY AND RESTAURATION PROJECT
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    The Cheresig keep (Bihor county), at 25 km. south – east from Oradea, near of romanian – hungarian border, was the aim of an restauration study in 1967. Unfortunately, the project was abandoned, so this unique monument in the military architecture from Transylvania remains in a poor conservation status.

    The first mention about this keep was in 1298, and it was used as nobiliar, royal and again nobiliar property. The last document which make a reference to this keep is from 1635 when an inventory was made. The restauration plans, abandoned in present, contain drawings and rehabilitation solution; the las ones being partially overfulfilled as restoration technique.


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  8. EMÕDI János, CĂRĂMIZI DIN BIHOR (Adenda II)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 93

    THE HISTORY OF BRICKS IN BIHOR COUNTY
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    This article is the second addendum to the study published in the volume entitled „Historical Dates from the Past of Oradea” vol. I, Oradea, 2000, pg. 119-154. In that volume there were presented 467 different kinds of bricks. In addition to the rectifications made in the first addendum, in which we added to the previous list 60 more unpublished pieces of bricks (Crisia , XXXIV, 2004, 133), now in this second addendum we present 16 more new names of brick-factory owners and 55 more new pieces of bricks.


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  9. Corina TOMA, LAKATOS Attila, UN TEZAUR MONETAR DIN SECOLELE XV-XVI DESCOPERIT LA MARGHITA (JUD. BIHOR)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 97

    A 15TH AND 16TH CENTURY COIN HOARD FROM MARGHITA (BIHOR COUNTY)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    The monetary discovery analyzed in the previous pages is a hoard found in the area of Marghita city and it is preserved in the collection of the Criş County Museum (Bihor county). The hoard consists of 2884 small silver coins issued between 1469 and 1599, in Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, Prussia and the city Schweidnitz. The composition of the hoard is completed by 70 fragmentary pieces which due to their conservation status could not be determined. As to the monetary units the hoard consists of 2856 denars, 52 weisspfennigs, 4 groschen and 2 half-groschen.

    The paper is structured on two levels: the catalog of coins with pictures illustrating each type of discovery, and a brief analysis on the characteristics of issuers and coin types, with an indicative calculation of the contemporary value completed by an approximation of the exchange rates on the period of the accumulation and hiding of the hoard. The annexes contain aditional graphics and tables designed to facilitate statistical analysis and interpretation of the hoards structure.


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  10. Alexandru SIMON, CU PRIVIRE LA GEOPOLITICA IMPERIULUI OTOMAN LA ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XVI
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 143

    REGARDING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE’S GEOPOLITICS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XVITH CENTURY
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    The Ottoman expansion remains one of the most debated subjects amongst scholars of the Middle Ages. Explaining the rise and the strength of the empire turns into a major and delicate endeavor when a geopolitical approach is used. In this respect, the sixteenth century, in particular its first half, the time when the Porte reached its political peak, if such a controversial type of labeling may be used under the circumstances, is a key period for understanding the Ottoman power mechanism, its strengths and eventually, though not as soon as some might have expected and as some shortcomings might have called for, fatal flaws. It could be said that the Porte, turned Sublime, won and lost on a truly global scale.


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  11. Mihai GEORGIŢĂ, MIHAI VITEAZUL ŞI CREŞTINĂTATEA SUD-DUNĂREANĂ
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 153

    MIHAI THE BRAVE AND SOUTH DANUBE CHRISTENDOM
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    Supported by Greek leaders to take the throne of Wallachia, after his entrance in the Holy League, Mihai will be engaged himself against the Ottoman offensive and also in the liberation battle of Christian people from Balkan. That is what he wants to accomplish until the tragic end of his life. After the victory at Calugareni, everyone will perceive Mihai like the leader of the battle against the Ottoman offensive carried by Christian people from South Danube, as well as the „restitutor Imperi” (Byzantine Empire), first of all because he had the same denomination with them (del rito loro). In this way he was supported to join together Bulgaria with Wallachia and Transylvania. But, in order to form a strong Antiottoman front, Mihai tried first of all to unify all the Romanian provinces and then, these ones with Bulgaria and Serbia, conquered again from the Ottomans.


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  12. Adriano PAPO, Gizella NEMETH, LA CARRIERA, LE PROPRIETA E I TESORI DI GYÖRGY MARTINUZZI UTYESZENICS
    limba articolului: Italiană, pagina 173

    THE CARRIER, THE ESTATES, THE WEALTH OF GYÖRGY MARTINUZZI UTYESZENICS
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    György Martinuzzi Utyeszenics (Brother George) was born in 1482 in the castle of Kamièac, in Croatia. After a monastic experience, he went into the service of John Szapolyai, king of Hungary and began his carrier as ‘royal quarter-master general’ (1531); then, he took the place of Imre Czibak in the management of the important bishopric of Várad/Oradea (he held also the bishoprics of Vác, Csanád/Cenad and Transylvania); then, he was appointed councillor of the king and finally great treasurer of the reign. In fulfilling this last duty, he ran the country with great ability. After the death of King John, Martinuzzi was appointed also regent (voivode), supreme judge, guardian of the son of King John, commander-in-chief of the Transylvanian army: he concentrated all the power in his hands. Before his death, he was appointed archbishop of Esztergom (primate of Hungary) and cardinal as well. György Martinuzzi Utyeszenics enjoyed very great incomes from his offices and his numerous estates. However, they said he had treasured a fabulous wealth by wasting the Treasury of State. In effect, he stored up an enormous wealth thanks to his private incomes. For this reason, it is very likely he did not draw on the Public Treasury, all the more that the Transylvanian incomes were hardly sufficient to pay ordinary expenses.


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  13. Florina Ciure, LIBRI E MANOSCRITTI RIGUARDANTI LA TRANSILVANIA CONSERVATI NELLA BIBLIOTECA NAZIONALE MARCIANA DI VENEZIA (SECC. XVI-XVII)
    limba articolului: Italiană, pagina 185

    BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS ABOUT TRANSILVANIA HOUSED IN THE MARCIANA LIBRARY IN VENICE (XVI-XVII CENTURIES)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    After a short introduction about the Marciana Library and its collections, were presentated some books not well known about the Transylvanian realities during the XVI-XVII centuries. The manuscripts of Petrus Coppus, Summarium totius orbis, and Marin Sanudo Torselo, Secreta fidelium Crucis, the books of Girolamo Brusoni, Le Campagne dell’Ungheria Degl’Anni 1663 e 1664; Historia dell’Ultima Guerra tra’ Veneziani e Turchi and Le historie universali d’Europa, the Historia Veneta by Alessandro Maria Vianoli, Memorie istoriche di monarchi ottomani by Giovanni Sagredo, Historia della repvblica veneta by Battista Nani, Delle Historie memorabili de’ nostri tempi by Maiolino Bisaccioni, Ristretto dell’historie del mondo by Horazio Torsellini, or Historia delle guerre d’Europa by Nicoló Beregan brings new details about the Transylvanian political events, about its territory and its implication in the Thirty Years War.


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  14. Gianfranco GIRAUDO, GRECO-CATOLICII DIN ROMÂNIA
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 199

    I GRECO-CATTOLICI DI ROMANIA
    Rezumat în:Italiană

    Nell’articolo l’Autore ripercorre le tappe della diffusione dell’influenza cattolica nelle terre romene. Mentre in Moldavia sono documentate minoranze di Cattolici di rito latino, l’Unione interessa quasi esclusivamente il Principato di Transilvania. I primi insediamenti di comunita greco-cattoliche riguardano le terre di confine tra la Transilvania e le terre dell’attuale Ucraina, un’estensione dell’Unione di Užhorod (Ungvár) al Maramureş ed alla zona di Făgăraş .

    Con il passaggio dal vassallaggio ottomano al dominio asburgico, da parte del governo di Vienna e dei Gesuiti ungheresi viene condotta una lotta contro i Principi transilvani calvinisti anche suscitando o favorendo rivendicazioni da parte di Valachi contro la classe dirigente ungherese.

    La situazione della Chiesa greco-cattolica romena ha attraversato momenti molto difficili, ma sembra ora orientata verso una civile convivenza di diversi culti.


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  15. Blaga MIHOC , UN PROTOCOL SAU UN PROCES VERBAL DIN SECOLUL AL XVIII-LEA
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 207

    A 18. CENTURY MEMOIR OR PROTOCOL
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    The writer presents in this work a Protocol or a written record lay down by the representatives of the Greco-Catholics from the north- west part of Romania on the occasion of some meetings concerning different events that took place in the first half of the 18.century.

    In this work he publishes a series of diplomas and acts emitted by the Austrian kings, acts that deal with the rights of Romanian people who passed to Greco-catholic religion. We can also find here an interesting poem about the Gipsy people .The poem was inspired by the orders given by Maria-Teresa concerning the interdiction of Gypsy people migration in order to turn them into peasants.


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  16. Florian KÜHRER, ALEXANDRU ION CUZA UND DIE VEREINIGUNG VON 1859 IN DEN GESCHICHTSLEHRBÜCHERN VON 1943 BIS HEUTE
    limba articolului: Germană, pagina 227

    ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA AND THE UNION OF 1859 REFLECTED IN THE HISTORY SCHOOL BOOKS (1943 UNTIL TODAY)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    Cuza remains one of the most influential figures in Romanian History. The ruler’s impact on modern Romanian self-awareness was almost unparalled until the second half of the last century. School books were instrumental in creating and establishing his ‘common’ image. Nonetheless, this image did not evolve gradually. Several political changes marked the reception and the presentation of Cuza. These changes reflected not only upon Cuza’s image, but also on those figures, contemporary or not to him, that were usually ‘paired’ up with him (this was namely the case of Prince/ King Charles I and Mihail Kogălniceanu, or of major medieval personalities, such as Stephen the Great and Michael the Brave). In this respect, the study therefore follows the chronological line of these evolutions.


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  17. Mihai D. DRECIN, Gabriel MOISA, REPERE ALE IMPLICĂRII COMUNITĂŢII EVREIEŞTI ÎN VIAŢA ORAŞULUI ORADEA
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 235

    REFERNCES MARKS OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY’S IMPLICATION IN THE LIFE OF ORADEA
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    In the first part of the paper they present statistical data concerning the numerical evolution of the Jewish population in Oradea during the 15th century until nowadays. It results that in the period 1867-1944 their per cent in the town population continuously increases, being indisputably the majority ethnical people. The holocaust launched by the Hungarian occupation through the deportations in May-June 1944 to Auschwitz abolishes almost entirely the community from Oradea.

    The Jews have remarked themselves in the modernization of the town, being very active in the domains of the industry, trade, banking, building, cultural life, teaching, medical department. The interwar period was beneficial to assert the Jews in Oradea, inclusively in the political life of the Great Romania.

    Today, those of almost 800 Jews of Romanian nationality are respectable citizens of our town, being a real connection deck between past and future.


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  18. Constantin MĂLINAŞ, Iudita CĂLUŞER, SFRAGISTICA BIBLIOTECII LICEULUI DE LA BEIUŞ PÂNĂ LA 1948
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 245

    SPHRAGISTIQUE DE LA BIBLIOTHEQUE DU LICÉE DE BEIUŞ JUSQU’AU 1948
    Rezumat în:Franceză

    En s’appuyant sur les documents d’archives, les auteurs proposent la continuation de l’effort de restaurer l’histoire de la Bibliotheque licéeale de la ville de Beiuş, en Roumanie, commencé par le livre Biblioteca gimnaziului greco-catolic de băieţi din Beiuş (1828-1918), publié en 2006, par la Maison éditrice Logos’ 94 d’Oradea.

    La réconstitution qui suit, donne le développement graduel de la Bibliotheque des anneés 1918 et 1948, avec l’augmentation de nombre d’ouvrages jusqu’a 40.000 volumes. Cet édifice bibliographique a éte detruit, depuis le premier livre jusqu’au dernier, aprés l’année 1948, tout comme les autres bibliotheques de Roumanie, par l’application excessive de l’accord d’armistice d’aprés la Deuxieme Guerre Mondiale, signé a Moscou le 12 septembre 1945 entre l’Union Sovietique, au nom des Nations Unies d’une part, et la Roumanie d’autre part.

    Les auteurs présentent les estampilles de la Bibliotheque, qui attestent l’authencité et la provenance des quelques livres de l’ancienne Bibliotheque, conservés jusqu’a nos jours; en meme temps ils gardent les illusions que d’autres livres seront découverts encore. L’ouvrage est, en meme temps, un appel a la découverte et une ouverture vers un horizon magnifique de travail et d’étude, pour retrouver un trésor bibliographique d’autre temps et nous sauver d’une grossiere ignorance.


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  19. Lucia CORNEA, INTELECTUALI ÎN EPOCA STALINISTĂ. EPURAREA ŞI „REEDUCAREA” AVOCAŢILOR DIN BAROUL ORADEA (1945-1953)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 269

    INTELLECTUELS A L’ÉPOQUE STALINIENNE. L’ÉPURATION ET LA „RÉÉDUCATION’’ DES AVOCATS DU BARREAU D’ORADEA
    Rezumat în:Franceză

    Des le 23 aout 1944, le Parti Communiste Roumain commença a mener une politique ayant pour objectif la prise du contrôle des divers segments de la société roumaine. Les intellectuels furent parmi les premiers visés. Les Barreaux d’avocats du nord-ouest de la Transylvanie, qui n’existaient plus depuis le rattachement de ce territoire a la Hongrie, furent recréés en 1945. Ce fut donc aussi le cas du Barreau des Avocats du Département de Bihor dont l’organisation était similaire a celle d’avant 1940.

    L’épuration des avocats fut décidée par la Loi n0 643 du 19 décembre 1944.

    Par cette loi, les avocats étaient accusés de faits qui, une fois prouvés, ne permettaient plus leur appartenance au Corps des avocats. La loi leur reprochait principalement: des actions en faveur du fascisme, l’appartenance a une organisation légionnaire ou fasciste, la propagation d’idées contraires aux principes démocratiques ou, sous l’influence de telles idées, l’exercice de pressions, actes de terreur, tortures et crimes; les crimes de guerre; la promotion dans la vie publique de buts fascistes ou racistes; l’obtention d’avantages pour eux-memes ou pour des tiers en abusant des lois aux caractere racial etc.

    Les faits et les attitudes cités ci-dessus et sanctionnés par cette loi concernaient l’intervalle de temps situé entre le 1er janvier 1935 et le 23 aout 1944.

    L’action de «purification» se déroula entre la fin de l’année 1945 et l’automne 1947. La Commission d’Épuration n’était pas obligée d’expliquer «sur quels moyens elle avait fondé sa conviction sur la réalité des faits reprochés» aux avocats. La procédure d’épuration dura longtemps. Il semble que les membres de la Commission d’Épuration ne travaillaient pas avec beaucoup d’enthousiasme en préférant, pour différentes excuses, ne pas participer aux proces de leurs collegues.

    Par l’intermédiaire de la presse locale on fit connaître a la population la liste des avocats inscrits dans le Barreau d’Oradea, liste qui avait été affichée en trois endroits: a la Cour d’Appel, au Tribunal et a la Mairie d’Oradea. On demandait a la population de dénoncer les avocats qu’elle jugeait coupables de faits tombant sous le coup de la loi du 19 décembre 1944.

    De nombreuses dénonciations et réclamations concernaient les années 1940-1944, marquées par la politique de discrimination nationale et raciale envers la population roumaine et juive, politique conduite par l’État hongrois dans le nord-ouest de la Transylvanie, zone dont faisait partie le nord du département de Bihor. Deux catégories de chefs d’accusation se dégagent des documents que contiennent les dossiers d’épuration: le premier concerne l’activité politique des personnes interrogées et le second le comportement de ces personnes envers la population juive. Les chefs d’accusation se rapportant a des événements qui avaient eu lieu dans le sud de Bihor, qui était resté roumain, font état notamment de la rébellion légionnaire et de la confiscation des fortunes juives.

    Par une réaction naturelle d’auto-défense, les avocats inculpés recoururent, presque sans exception, a la «réécriture» de leurs propres biographies. On peut remarquer a travers les déclarations et les autobiographies gardées dans les dossiers d’épuration que chacun essayait d’adapter et de nuancer sa biographie dans le sens voulu par l’idéologie du moment. Ainsi, ils apparaissaient tous comme ayant des vues démocratiques, comme ne faisant aucune distinction de nationalité ou de race, comme aidant les Juifs, comme sympathisant avec la classe ouvriere, comme n’ayant aucune liaison avec les partis politiques de droite. Ils cherchaient tous a obtenir des «certificats de bonne conduite» aupres de différentes institutions et organisations «dignes de confiance» a cette époque. Ils produisaient aussi des témoins, surtout juifs, qui puissent justifier de la bonne conduite du «purifié» vis-a-vis de la communauté juive locale. L’inquiétude et la hâte d’organiser sa propre défense étaient tout a fait naturelles étant donné que l’avocat jugé coupable encourait l’interdiction temporaire d’exercer pendant 2 a 5 ans, ou, pire, l’exclusion définitive du Corps des Avocats, ce qui avait comme conséquence la perte du droit a la pension de retraite.

    Les avocats innocentés recevaient une décision «d’exemption d’épuration» et un «certificat de purification». Malheureusement, tous les dossiers des proces de purification n’ont pas été gardés dans le fonds d’archives étudié et nous ne pouvons pas connaître, pour chaque cas, quelle décision avait été prise a la suite du jugement. Néanmoins, il paraît que la grande majorité des avocats inculpés ont été innocentés, chose qui dénote une réelle solidarité de la confrérie.

    Des le début de 1948, ou il y eut le passage drastique a l’alignement idéologique de toute la société, le processus d’adaptation de toutes les structures de la société a l’idéologie communiste et aux nouveaux rapports de pouvoir toucha aussi les professions libérales. La catégorie des avocats s’en ressentit également. Par la Loi no 3 du 19 janvier 1948, les Barreaux d’avocats furent dissous. Pour les remplacer, l’État créa les Colleges d’Avocats.

    A partir du 1er juin 1950, les avocats exerçaient leur profession dans des Bureaux Collectifs d’Assistance Juridique. Désormais, la profession d’avocat allait perdre son caractere de profession libérale. Elle était dépouillée de son caractere indépendant et libre et transformée en annexe d’une justice asservie au nouveau régime politique. L’avocat était ainsi découplé du client, le travail en collectif étant introduit comme principe obligatoire.


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  20. Artur LAKATOS, SITUAŢIA ECONOMICĂ A BISERICII UNITARIENE DIN TRANSILVANIA. 1944-1948
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 283

    THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE UNITARIAN CHURCH OF TRANSYLVANIA
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    Based on extensive archive researches, in particular on the Church’s own records, the Study focuses on the special issue of the economic situation of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the estates of the Church, to its sources of revenue and to the ‘management’ of these funds, given the growingly peculiar circumstances of the first years after World War II. The study also discusses the rather questionable successes’ of the ecclesiastical administration in dealing with the changing local and regional framework and in particular to the rise and growth of the Communist regime.


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  21. Corneliu CRĂCIUN, „UNIUNEA PATRIOŢILOR” ÎN BIHOR (1945)
    limba articolului: Română, pagina 299

    „UNIUNEA PATRIOŢILOR” IN BIHOR COUNTY (1945)
    Rezumat în:Engleză

    In the summer of 1942, the “Union of Patriots” made its appearance in conditions of illegitimacy as a political and propagandist instrument of the Communist Party of Romania. According to the documents discovered within the funds of Bihor County National Archives, the first local organisations of the Union of Patriots were established in the autumn of 1944. From the kept documents, as well as from the articles published in the local press, it results the subordination of the Union to the Communists in all the undertaken activities. Through the Union, middle social categories were associated to the Communist policy. In 1946, at the Communist Party’s command, the Union was transformed into a political party.


    articol complet (pdf)



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