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ISSN: 1016 – 2798, Frequency: annual, CNCSIS Category: B+ (2010)

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The Archive of the Crisia magazine


From the following link you can download the abstracts of the articles included in the editions of the last four years of the journal: Abstracts 2008-2011


Number XLI, 2011


Editorial Board:


Person responsible for the publications of the Ţării Crişurilor Museum: Dr. Aurel Chiriac

Secretar de redacţie: Gabriel Moisa

Bord editorial: Florina Ciure, Gruia Fazecaş, Olimpia Mureşan

Consiliu ştiinţific:

PhD Prof. Cesare Alzati – Universita Catolica Del Sacro Cuore, Milano

PhD Prof. Mihai Bărbulescu – Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Academician Nicolae Edroiu - Institutul de Istorie “George Bariţ” Cluj-Napoca

Dr. György Feiszt – Vas County Archives of Szombathely

Prof.univ. dr. Gianfranco Giraudo – Universitatea Ca’Foscari din Veneţia

PhD Prof. László Gróf - Oxford Military College

PhD Prof. Francesco Leoncini - Universitatea Ca’Foscari din Veneţia

PhD Prof. Ovidiu Pecican - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Academician Ioan Aurel Pop - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

PhD Prof. Doru Radosav - Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Prof. Univ. Dr. Adriano Papo, Universitatea din Udine

Dr. Gizella Nemeth, Sodalitas Adriatico-Danubiana

PhD Prof. László Gróf, Colegiul Militar Oxford.

Dr. György Feiszt, Arhivele Judeţului Vas din Szombathely.



Articles:

  1. Florin Gogâltan, Funcţia economică şi socială a tell-urilor epocii bonzului din Bazinul Carpatic. II. Tell-urile şi procesul de urbanizare
    article language: Romanian, page 9

    Funcţia economică şi socială a tell-urilor epocii bonzului din Bazinul Carpatic. II. Tell-urile şi procesul de urbanizare
    Abstract in:Romanian

    Mult prea devreme a plecat dintre noi cel care a fost un demn urmaş a lui Gábor Téglás şi Octavian Floca în cercetarea vestigiilor arheologice hunedorene şi mai apoi un distins profesor al Universităţii „1 Decembrie” din Alba Iulia. L-am cunoscut cu aproape 30 de ani în urmă pe şantierul de la Cugir „Cetate” ca om şi specialist profund devotat meseriei sale, un exemplu de urmat pentru noi tinerii liceeni cu visuri de a deveni arheologi. Grija părintească pe care mi-a arătat-o pe atunci s-a transformat, cu trecerea anilor, într-o prietenie colegială. Pentru mine Bebe a fost un model de corectitudine, dăruire, bun simţ, modestie şi înţelegere pentru ceilalţi. Ceea ce a scris, în condiţiile de loc de invidiat ale unui muzeu provincial din anii comunismului, este o dovadă vie că orice greutate poate fi depăşită prin pasiune. Acum nu îmi rămâne decât regretul de-a nu mai putea depăna împreună o amintire sau plănui o nouă cercetare arheologică...



    Die Wirtschafts-und Sozialfunktion der bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken. II. Die Tells und der Urbanisierungsprozeß
    Abstract in:German

    Der erste Teil dieses Aufsatzes ist vor einigen Jahren in einem Sammelband erschienen, welcher Aspekte der Handels-und Kulturbeziehungen în Siebenbürgen im Altertum erörterte. Um Begriffe wie „proto-urban”, „prä-urban”, „urban”, „Urbanismus” usw. erklären zu können, die von manchen Fachleuten verwendet werden, wenn sie das Stadium der sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken diskutieren, habe ich mir vorgenommen, diese eingehender zu untersuchen. Als Ausgangspunkt habe ich selbstverständlich eine knappe Darstellung der Tatsachen im Nahen Osten und der minoisch-mykenisch Welt gewählt, dort, wo eine Reihe Tells in der Bronzezeit ein Stadium erreichten, daß als „urban” bezeichnet werden kann. Ich bin gleichermaßen mit der Information über die Siedlungstypen verfahren, die in der Vorgeschichte Europas bekannt sind. Ich habe auch die Erwähnung der Meinungen jener Fachleute für nötig erachtet, die sich nicht unmittelbar mit den archäologischen Tatsachen aus dem Nahen Osten oder Europa auseinandergesetzt haben, seien sie Soziologen, Geographen, Anthroplogen oder Linguisten. Ich habe ebenfalls versucht, die Meinungen einiger bekannten Forscher der Habitatsarchäologie aufzuzeigen, die Mechanismen, die die Umwandlung eines Dorfes in eine Stadt markieren sowie deren Zeitpunkt, untersucht haben.

    Wenn all diese Aspekte berücksichtigt werden, würde ich eine synthetische Defintion vorschlagen, die soviele gemeinsame von den Fachleuten des frühgeschichtlichen Habitats vorgeschlagenen Kennzeichen wie möglich umfasst. Somit ist ein urbanes Gemeinwesen eine ständige Siedlung, die verhältnismässig gross und dicht bevölkert ist, die aneinandergereihte Bauten wie auch ein Befestigunssystem hat, über eine vielfältige soziale Struktur verfügt, die im Vergleich mit seinem Hinterland vornehmlich andere Tätigkeiten als die landwirtschaftlichen ausübt und somit die Funktion eines Zentralortes innehat.

    Als ich definiert habe, was unter einem Tell im Karpatenbecken verstanden werden kann, hatte ich zwei Bedeutungen vor Augen gehabt: eine, die wir klassisch oder gattungsbegrifflich nennen könnten, jene des künstlichen Hügels, der im Laufe der Zeit infolge der Ablagerung menschlicher Tätigkeit entstanden ist (Siedlungshügel); die andere, besondere/spezifische, die einen archäologischen Begriff definiert, der sich auf einen bestimmten Siedlungstyp bezieht: Tellsiedlung.

    Bei der Zusammenstellung des Katalogs der bronzezeitlichen Tellsiedlungen aus dem Karpatenbecken habe ich festgestellt, dass es sowohl Siedlungen mit drei archäologischen Ebenen, die mehr als 1 m Ablagerungen enthalten, als auch Siedlungen mit mindestens zwei Ebenen und einer Stratigraphie bis zu einem Meter gibt. Aufgrund dieser Beobachtung musste ich mit Begriffen wie eigentliche Tells für die erste Kategorie und tellartige Siedlungen für die zweite Kategorie arbeiten. Diese sind streng archäologische Kriterien, die anwendbar sind, wenn das Habitat der Bronzezeit im Karpatenbecken detailliert diskutiert wird.

    Ich unternehme den Versuch synthetisch zu erforschen, ob die bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken den Kennzeichen entsprechen, die ich für die Katalogisierung als städtische Vergesellschaftungen vorgeschlagen habe. Zweifellos sind die Tells ständige Behausungen und nicht zeitweilige Siedlungen, wie D.W. Bailey versucht hat, in diesem Sinn für einige Fundstellen dieses Typs, die für die Kupferzeit in Bulgarien charakteristisch sind, zu argumentieren. Diese Behauptung wird von Beobachtungen stratigraphischer Natur sowie von einigen 14C-Datenserien untermauert die aus verschiedenen Wohnungsetappen der Tells gewonnen wurden (Feudvar, Včelince, Pecica). Zahlreiche Tells aus dem Karparenbecken haben Ablagerungen, die 2-3 m ohne nennenswerte stratigraphische Unterbrechungen der Wohnsequenzen überschreiten.

    Bezüglich der Dimensionen, die die Tells erreichen konnten, muss geklärt werden, dass ein Umfang befestigt wurde, welcher die räumlichen Bedürfnisse und die Verteidigungsmöglichkeiten einer jeglichen Gemeinschaft befriedigte. Aus diesem Grund ist die Oberfläche der Tells verschieden: 0,22 ha bei Tiszaalpár, 0,5 ha bei Včelince, 2,83 ha bei Nagykőrös, 3,85 ha bei Malé Kosihy, 6,6 ha bei Spišský Štrvtok, 18 ha bei Aba-Belsőbáránd oder 16-20 ha bei Bölcske.

    Was die Anzahl der Bewohner betrifft, müssen wir die Ausmasse der Tells wie auch die erforschte Oberfläche, den Grundriss der Siedlung, den Wohnungstypus und die Anzahl der untersuchten Wohnungen in Betracht ziehen. B. Hänsel hat die Bevölkerung von Feudvar annähernd berechnet. Ausgehend von der Voraussetzunge einer Familie, die aus acht Personen: Eltern, vier Kindern und zwei anderen Verwandten bestand, kam er zu einer Gemeinschaft, die mehr als 1000 Menschen zählte.

    In einigen Tells wurde die Oberfläche nur in beschränktem Umfang erforscht, und zwar nur um die Stratigraphie zu untersuchen, oder wurden die alten Ausgrabungen noch nicht veröffentlicht oder wurde der Gesamtgrundriss der Siedlung noch nicht zusammengestellt. In anderen Fällen verfügen wir nur über Informationen über das Vorhandensein einer grösseren oder kleineren Anzahl von aneinandergereihten Bauten mit viereckiger Oberfläche. Unter diesen Umständen kann kein zusammenhängendes Bild des Grundrisses eines Tells geboten werden. Der Grossteil scheint jedoch der Lage von Feudvar und Barca nahezukommen, was eine strenge Anordnung der Häuser wie auch ein Parzellierungssystem voraussetzt, das Jahrhunderte hindurch ohne wesentliche Änderungen beibehalten wurde.

    Bezüglich des Befestigungssytems der bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken habe ich jüngst zu diesem Thema einen zusammenfassenden Artikel veröffentlicht. Von den 188 Siedlungen in meinem Katalog wurden bei 26 auch das Verteidigungssystem untersucht. Andere Tells wie die von Füzesabony, Socodor „Căvojdia”, Vărşand „Movila dintre vii“ oder Békés waren nicht befestigt. Im Falle von etwa 100 Siedlungen kann aufgrund der Oberflächenforschung und der Zusammenstellung von topographischen Karten das Vorhandensein eines Verteidigungssystems vermutet werden. Für den Rest der mehr als 50 Siedlungen gibt es keine Daten. In den meisten Fällen wurden natürliche defensive Elemente ausgenutzt: Flussläufe, Sümpfe, Hochterrassen. Abgesehen von der Fundstelle von Spišský Štrvtok, wo eine Mauer und zwei runde Steinbasteien hinzugefügt wurden, besteht das Befestigungssytem aus einem Graben, einem Wall und einer Palissade.

    Die Komplexität der Gesellschaft der Bronzezeit war das Thema jüngerer Synthesen. Wir irren nicht, wenn wir uns vorstellen, dass dieselbe Welt der Krieger, Kultdiener, Händler, Handwerker aber auch des „gemeinen Mannes“ die Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken bewohnte. Damit das gesamte System funktioniere, ist jeder ein bedeutendes und unersetzbares Glied der Kette.

    Dank der Ausmasse der Tells, der Komplexität der wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und religiösen Tätigkeit, die hier ausgeübt wurde, des Befestigungssystems, des Areals, das die Satelitsiedlung eingenommen hat, was einen grössere oder kleinere Anzahl von Einwohnern und implizite des verwalteten Gebietes voraussetzt, können wir das Vorhandensein eines Statusunterschiedes zwischen den verschiedenen bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken voraussetzen. Durch die Herrschaft über einen lebenswichtigen Kommunikationsweg wurden Tells wie jene von Feudvar, Pecica oder Százhalombatta immer wohlhabender. Die Oberflächenforschung haben in Ermangelung ähnlicher Siedlungen den Konzentrationsprozess der Bevölkerung in Tells und ihre Niederlassung in deren Satelitsiedlungen bewiesen. Die festgestellten Unterschiede auf dem Gebiet des Lebensmittelkonsums wie auch der Keramikproduktion zwischen einigen Wohnungen von Feudvar können als Existenz einer regelrechten Synökie infolge der Ankunft von Personen aus unterschiedlichen Räumen, die wir heute als Verbreitungsgebiet der Vatina-Kultur identifizieren, betrachtet werden.

    Aufgrund des vorhin Dargestellten kann folgende Charakterisierung dieses Habitatstypus herausgearbeitet werden. Als archäologischer Begriff, der auf die Tatsachen aus dem Karpatenbecken anwendbar ist, sind die Tells ständige Siedlungen, mehrschichtig, die in einer spezifischen geographischen Zone infolge günstiger Umweltbedingungen entstanden sind. Sie entstanden durch die Anhäufung der Reste von ausgedehnten Oberflächenwohnungen aus Lehm mit Holzstruktur. Diese Bauten sind im Rahmen der Siedlung nach klaren architektonischen Grundsätzen organisiert (ein gewisser Bautyp, eine Anordnung der Häuser, die vorherige Absteckung der Gassen und Strassen usw.), die in der Existenz des Tells für lange Zeit beachtet werden. Das Vorhandensein von Befestigungen, manche davon beeindruckend, einer autarken Wirtschaftstätigkeit setzen eine klar strukturierte soziale Organisation voraus. Als Schöpfung derselben Gemeinschaft, die für lange Zeit ein Areal bewohnt, stellen die Tells eine zentrale, klar individualisierte Siedlung dar, die von von einer oder mehreren Satelitsiedlungen umgeben wird, die ein gut definiertes Hinterland markieren.

    Diese Charakterisierung steht dem nahe, was wir als städtische Vergesellschaftung definiert haben. Ich habe es im Falle der Tells vermieden, sie als ausgedehnt und folglich bevölkerungsreich zu definieren. Gleichermassen scheint ihre Wirtschaftstätigkeit in Beziehung zu den Satelitsiedlungen eher autark gewesen zu sein und nicht von einem Gebiet abzuhängen, das auch andere Tells umfasst und somit komplexere sozialökonomische Beziehungen voraussetzt. Es bleiben demnach viele Unbekannte, die uns daran hindern, die sozialen Hierarchien zu entziffern, ohne die wir aber die Existenz von städtischen Strukturen nicht voraussetzen können. In erster Linie sind es die fehlenden Monumentalbauten, so wie sie in den zeitgenössischen hettitischen, minoischen, mykenischen usw. Kulturen vorkommen, für die es zwei Erklärungen gibt: im Karpatenbecken gab es ein anderes Repräsentationsmodell des Status oder wir befinden uns auf dem Niveau einer „Militärdemokratie“, in der die Führer noch nicht die alle Prärogativen der Macht errungen hat.

    In der Festlegung der Wirtschafts-und Sozialfunktion der bronzezeitlichen Tells aus dem Karpatenbecken ist die Meinung von K. Kristiansen zu berücksichtigen, laut der sie als Produktions-Verteilungs-und Handelszentren für die Eliten der Gesellschaft zu betrachten seien und keinesfalls mit der Lage in anderen Räumen forciert verglichen werden sollten. Es ist offensichtlich, dass die Tells die höchste Position in der Entwicklung des hiesigen frühgeschichtlichen Habitats darstellt. Mehr noch, es ist durchaus möglich, dass Siedlungen wie Feudvar die ersten Schritte zu einer sogenannten „städtischen Kultur“ markieren. Die Unterbrechung dieser Lebensweise nach nur einigen hundert Jahren hat den Entwicklungsprozess der Tells zu städtischen Siedlungen, so wie das im Nahen Osten geschehen ist, aufgehalten.


    full article (pdf)

  2. Cristian Ioan Popa, Obiecte de metal din locuirea Coţofeni de la Băniţa - Peştera Bolii (Jud. Hunedoara)
    article language: Romanian, page 37

    Metal Artifacts from Băniţa Cave Coţofeni Settlement (Hunedoara County)
    Abstract in:English

    Coţofeni culture from Băniţa - Bolii-cave is little known in the archeological literature. The only systematic research has been undertaken here in 1988 by I. Andriţoiu (Deva) and Tiberiu Mariş (Hunedoara) and led to the discovery of a rich archaeological material (pottery, and artifacts made from stone, bones, horns and metal). The objects were found in few human arrangements (houses, hearths) which belong to the third phase of Coţofeni culture. In this paper are presented five metallic artifacts found on the occasion of these excavations, two awls, a pin, a pendant and an ingot. If awls are common artifacts of final phase of Coţofeni culture, the ingot and the pendant are unique in this cultural environment. Copper pendant copy similar artifacts made of stone, found in Coţofeni culture. Metallographic analysis of the ingot has determined that it is copper, with a rate of 0.246% As.


    full article (pdf)

  3. Călin GHEMIŞ, Jean CLOTTES, Bernard GELY, Francoise PRUD’HOMME, O descoperiere arheologică de excepţie – „Galeria desenelor” din peştera Coliboaia, Munţii Apuseni (România)
    article language: Romanian, page 53

    An Exceptional Archaeological Discovery – The Gallery with "drawings" from Coliboaia Cave, Apuseni Mountains, Romania
    Abstract in:English

    On 20 september 2009 a team of speolaelogists1 discovered the „Galery with Drawings” in the Coliboaia Cave. On the walls of this gallery has been made 13 drawings representing: rinoceroses, bears, probably an horse or an felinae, bison and some unidentified figures.

    From the chronological point of view thes drawings are placed in Gravettian’ 29.000 – 23.000) or Aurignacian (35.000 – 29.000) in the old period of Upper Palelolithic. The researches are in progress.


    full article (pdf)

  4. Sanda BĂCUEŢ-CRIŞAN, Vasele miniaturale în descoperirile arheologice. Aşezările neolitice din judeţul Sălaj
    article language: Romanian, page 69

    Miniature Vessels in Archaeological Discoveries
    Abstract in:English

    The study presents types of pottery which are less present in the specialty literature, namely the miniature vessels and more specifically, their functionality. In this respect, doing an analysis of what it is presently known about these types of pottery, the paper presents the main hypothesis regarding their role and importance: toys, objects made by children when learning the art of pottery or cultic objects, each of these assumptions being justified by the context in which they have been discovered or by their manufacturing technique.

    In conclusion, we cannot assume that there has been only one universal functionality, because the background in which it has been discovered really shows us the usage of these vessels and their functionality.


    full article (pdf)

  5. Ioan F. POP, Elenismul şi cultura creştină
    article language: Romanian, page 83

    The Hellenism and the Christian Culture
    Abstract in:English

    Even in the apostles time, a first Hellenistic faze of the Christianity could be noticed as perceivable in the structure of The New Testament. The relationship between the evangelical teaching and Philosophy would be beneficial for the both ways of approaching the Man and the sense of his life. The impact between the Hellenism and the Judaism would lead, in the Christianity, to an abstract vision upon the divinity, to the attempt of its conceptualization. Between the two worlds, Hellenistic and Christian, a phenomenon of osmosis, of interchanging ideas and mentalities, is produced. They reach the so called „Christian Hellenism”. The Christianization of the Greek world could not be achieved without a certain contamination with some of its characteristics. By means of the Greek influence, the Christianity manages to „de-countrify” by itself, not being an ordinary denomination in the Jewish environment anymore. It could even be stated that the success of the early Christianity is due to its capacity of adjusting to the Greek culture, as well. The way it managed to take advantage of this culture as of a sheer vehicle of ideas, led to the formation of the conceptually-terminological structure.


    full article (pdf)

  6. Florin SFRENGEU, Archaeological Discoveries in the Bistra Stream Area, (First Half of the 1st Millennium a.d.)
    article language: English, page 91

    Archaeological Discoveries in the Bistra Stream Area, (First Half of the 1st Millennium a.d.)
    Abstract in:English

    The work shows a series of archaeological findings in the Bistra stream area in the Bihor County dating back to the 1st century B.C. until the 6th century A.D. In the area of the Dacian fortress at Sacalasau, there is an impressive range of discoveries that seem to belong to a silver Dacian thesaurus dating back to the 1st century A.D. The archaeological findings at Voivozi – Cilogos show the existence of free Dacians along the Bistra stream at the Roman epoch. This living level dates back to the 3rd century A.D., or probably the beginning of the 4th century A.D. We notice the influence of provincial Roman ceramics on the ceramics of free Dacians in the area and in Crisana in general. In 1970, an important thesaurus was discovered at Tauteni. It is made up of two silver cups. It was published in 1973 by S. Dumitrascu and was considered to belong to the Heruli of German origin. In the area, there was a civilisation of locals belonging to Hun and Gepid times, also known as the Biharea – Sânnicolau Român –Floreşti – Sânmiclăuş – Ipoteşti – Cândeşti – Botoşana – Dodeşti civilisation of Latin and Christian population.


    full article (pdf)

  7. Ioan CRIŞAN, Considérations sur la présence des petchénègues en Crişana
    article language: French, page 97

    Considérations sur la présence des petchénègues en Crişana
    Abstract in:French

    Population d’origine touranienne, les Petchénègues ont fondé une confédération tribale qui est devenue le principal facteur de puissance dans les steppes nord pontiques après le départ des Hongrois en Pannonie. Le Xe siècle la domination des Petchénègues s’étandait jusqu’en Moldavie ou éventuellement jusqu’en Muntenie, la Transsylvanie étant une zone tampon entre les Hongrois et les Petchenègues. L’évolution des relations entre les Petchenègues, les Russes, les Bulgares et les Hongrois, auxquels ont probablement ajouté des querelles, abouti à la séparation des groupes des Petchenègues et à leur mouvement vers l’ouest.

    En Hongrie l’établissement des Petchénègues a été fait en plusieurs étapes, dès première moitié du Xe siècle, pendant la règne du duc Zoltan (907-945), jusqu’à la première moitié du XIIIe siècle pendant la règne du roi Étienne IIe (1116-1131). Dans les sources hongroises les Petchénègues sont connus sous le nom de bisseni, forme latine du nom hongrois besenyő (turc. bäčänäk).

    La présence des Petchénègues en Crişana est illustrée par des noms de lieux, hydronymes et antroponymes.

    En ce qui concerne le moyen par lequel s’est fait l’entrée des Petchenègues en Crişana est envisagé en deux étapes. Tout d’abord, la première dont nous venons de faire avancer une hypothèse, c’est que les Petchenègues pouvaient vivre dans cette province au cours du Xe siècle ou au début du XIe siècle.

    La certaine présence des Petchénègues en Crişana est une réalité plus tardive. Leur établissement a eu lieu seulement après leur défaite décisive par les Hongroisen 1068, ou après la restauration de l’autorité étatique hongroise représentée par des comtes en commençant par Bihor où en 1111 est attesté le comte Saul. Par la colonisation des Petchénègues l’autorité étatique poursuivait le renforcement du système de défense des comtés en se concentrant sur les fortification (cités) à terre. Dans ce système, ils ont pris place des Szeklers, déplacées à la lisière orientale de la Transylvanie contre le danger couman du côté de la Moldavie.

    Le nom Beseneu, sous lequel apparaît la majorité des établissements petchénègues de Crişana, suggère que les colonisés représentaient une population commune qui a perdu la conscience d’apparténence à une tribu particulière.

    Archéologiquement, la présence des Petchénègues en Crişana coïncide à l’utilisation de chaudron en argile comme type céramique.

    À la suite de la décadence du système défensif concentré sur les fortifications à terre et de la constitution des grands domains féodaux, les établissements petchénègues ont été asservises et les tâches militaires ont été transformées dans les obligations économiques vis-à-vis des seigneurs de la terre.

    L’asservissement des Petchénègues atténuera en plus leur spécifique éthnique et dépéchera leur assimilation. La grande invasion tartare a réduit probablement leur nombre parce que certains établissements ne figurent plus tard dans les documents. On semble que leurs sédentarisation définitive s’est produit pendant la seconde moitié

    du XIIIe siècle parce que jusqu’alors on trouve encore des fragments des chaudrons en argile. Ceux qui sont restés ont été soumis de plus en plus à une pression catholique et féodale. À la lumière des documents on peut discerné que les Petchenègues de Crişana ont embrassé le culte catholique dès le XIIIe siècle parce que dans les établissements petchénègues on trouve des églises catholiques. On estime qu’au cours du XIIIe siècle les Petchénègues ont largement perdu le langage.

    Pour diverses raisons, parmi lesquelles de nombreux affrontements entre les Turcs et les Habsbourgs après 1552, presque toutes les établissements qui rappelaient des Petchenègues ont été définitivement abandonnées.


    full article (pdf)

  8. Dan BĂCUEŢ-CRIŞAN, Morminte de incineraţie medievale timpurii descoperite la Zalău „Dealul Lupului/Farkas Domb” (jud. Sălaj)
    article language: Romanian, page 113

    Early Mediaeval Cremation Graves Discovered in Zalău „Dealul Lupului/Farkas Domb” (Sălaj County)
    Abstract in:English

    The site is located on the large plateau of “Dealul Lupului/ Farkas Domb”. The plateau is limited in West by Mâtii Valley and in North by Zalău Valley. Our attention is drifting toward the early mediaeval cremation graves discovered in Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Farkas Domb”, following the rescue excavations made in 2004 and 2005. Presently, only five early mediaeval cremation graves were found, two in 2004 and three in 2005.

    The researches from 2004

    The grave M1/2004. This cremation grave was found in trench S4/2004. At the depth of 0,25 m, the rests of a destroyed funerary urn appeared, which contained cremated bones. The grave pit could not been outlined. The grave M2/2004. This cremation grave was found in trench S5/2004. At the depth of 0,25 m, the rests of another destroyed funerary urn appeared. Neither in this case, the grave pit could not been outlined.

    The researches from 2005

    The grave M1/2005. This was a cremation grave destroyed by the plough-land. It was found at the depth of -0,16 m. Fragments from the inferior part of a pot have been recovered (the funerary urn), in which were the cremated bones. Nearby, were also found bones scattered by the plough. The grave pit could not been outlined.

    The grave M2/2005. It was a cremation grave scattered by the plough, identified at the depth 0,15 m. At the level of the sterile were found fragments from the funerary urn. Nearby were found cremated bones. The grave pit could not been outlined.

    The grave M3/2005. It was a cremation grave destroyed by the agricultural processes. It has been identified at the depth -0, 20 m. Some pottery fragments have been recovered from the funerary urn and some cremated bones. The grave pit could not been outlined.

    Funerary rite and ritual

    Presently, in Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Frarkas Domb” were found five early mediaeval cremation graves, unfortunately affected by the agricultural processes. The graves M2/2004 and M1/2005, the ones that had some inferior parts of the funerary urns and which contained cremated bones, shows the depositing rite of the bones into the urn. We cannot tell anything the shape and the dimensions of the sepulchral pits because they could not have been outlined in any of the archaeological complexes.

    The graves M2/2004, M2/2005 and M3/2005 were kept more bad than the others. They were identified under the shape of some small concentrations of pottery fragments from the funerary urn, mixed up with cremated bones; this way, we do not know if the bones were deposited only into the urn or directly into the sepulchral pit.

    Chronological framing

    Unfortunately, because of the preserving conditions, if we want to do the dating of the early mediaeval graves discovered in Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Frarkas Domb” we can use only two elements: the funerary rite and the pottery (funerary urns). This type of funerary practices are well known in the VII-IX centuries A. D. in Transylvania. Also, they are certified in the extra-carpathian area too. The analogies shown for the funerary discoveries from Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Frarkas Domb” are characteristic for a period of time between the second half of the VII-th century and IX-th century. The researches from Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Frarkas Domb” are at the beginning and we do not hold yet many elements to make the chronology, so in this moment we can only affirm that the vestiges from here are dated somewhere around the two limits too. The results of the researches made in 2004-2005 in the cemetery of Zalău “Dealul Lupului/Frarkas Domb” are interesting and also important for the early mediaeval period. The expanding of the researches can bring new dates regarding the funerary rite and communion practiced here, more elements that could help to establish the chronology of these vestiges.

    Symbols used for the pottery types: hand made pottery - ○, slow wheel made pottery - ●.


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  9. Doru Marta, Călin Ghemiş, Cuţite de luptă medievale descoperite în judeţul Bihor
    article language: Romanian, page 127

    Middle Age Battle Knives Discovered in Bihor County
    Abstract in:English

    Our study present two battle knives discovered at Batăr and Oradea. The iron pieces are in an quite good preservation stage.From the chronological point of view these are weapons used in the period of Xlll-th and XV th century. The analogies are to be found in the weaponry from Hungary, Slovakia, Moldavia and Walachia.

    With the iconographical analogies it can be seen the way of use from these weapons in the Middle Age.


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  10. Adriano PAPO, György Martinuzzi utyeszenics e la regina Isabella Jagellone: protagonisti e antagonisti della storia ungherese nel XVI secolo
    article language: Italian, page 161

    George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics and the Queen Isabella Jagello: Protagonists and Antagonists of the Hungarian history in the 16th Century
    Abstract in:English

    Isabella Jagello (1519-1559) was the daughter of Bona Sforza, the countess of Bari, and of Sigismund Jagello I, the king of Poland. Only twenty she married the king of Hungary, John Szapolyai I. Isabella was a cultured woman: she had grown in the royal palace of Cracow, in the flower of Polish Renaissance. After the death of King John (1540), the bishop of Várad / Oradea George Martinuzzi Utyeszenics (Broder George) (1482-1551), already great treasurer and lieutenant as well as the first guardian of the Queen’s sun, John Sigismund, was appointed supreme judge, too. Martinuzzi was also commander-in-chief of the Transylvanian army; so, he had concentrated all the power in his hands. Before his death, he would be appointed archbishop of Esztergom (primate of Hungary) and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church as well. In addition, he stored up an enormous wealth thanks to his public and private incomes. Of course, dissentions broke out between Broder George and the Queen: Isabella did not bear the cohabitation with a man she considered as a usurper of the kingdom. The Queen accused her lieutenant of having depriving the Public Treasury and stripped herself and her sun of all financial support for living expenses. Isabella welcomed the announcement of Brother George’ s murder as a liberation from slavery and thanked King Ferdinand for having rid her of a monster, who had planned to rule Transylvania as a king.


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  11. Mihai GEORGIŢĂ, Înnobilarea Preotului Român Calvin Ioan Din Alamor (1643)
    article language: Romanian, page 171

    The Ennoblement Of The Romanian Calvinist Preist Ioan From Alămor (1643 )
    Abstract in:English

    In this study we present and analyze the degree of ennoblement of the Romanian Calvinist preast Ioan from Alămor, which we discovered recently in certified copy. Samuil Micu was the first historian who have mentioned in his history work of the Romanians the fact that, the preasts from Alămor were ennobled because they went to Calvinism, without presenting evidence. Then, Ioan Cavaler de Puşcariu described his coat–of-arms, which is now the only source of analysis. The translation and the transcription of the degree in the annex and its introduction in the scientific circuit removed all the speculations made about the ennoblement of this preast. Therefore, it was established that the ennoblement of Ioan from Alămor and of his son Nicolae, was conditioned by the passing to Calvinism, a confession that they had to keep in the future, even their succesors too.


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  12. Florina CIURE, Studenţi transilvăneni la Universitatea din Padova în secolul al XVII-Lea
    article language: Romanian, page 179

    Transylvanian Students at the University of Padua in the Seventeenth Century
    Abstract in:English

    Transylvanian students, who completed their training at Padua, the University of Venetian Republic, were the main vectors to diffuse the innovative ideas in their homeland. Since the XIVth century many chancellors and notaries studied at the university. In the sixteenth century most students had attended canon law becoming canons or bishops, but in the seventeenth century they preferred medicine, philosophy and legal right. Transylvanian students, mostly of Hungarian ethnicity and Saxons, published works in the city of Padua, and whether they studied legal right, theology or medicine, after returning home they spread the new acquired ideas and practices, and many of them as teachers shared their experience to those eager for knowledge.


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  13. Edith Bodo, Sistemul robotei pe domeniile Episcopiei romano-catolice şi greco-catolice de Oradea
    article language: Romanian, page 187

    The Robot System in The Domains of Oradea’s Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic Bishoprics
    Abstract in:English

    The statute labour (robot), a reality of every day peasant’s life in the dawn of modern period, was one of the hardest assignments. Although the Maria Theresa’s urbarial regulation established the maximum quantum of the statute labour, some landlords had continued to claim it in those periods of the year when the peasant had been engaged with his own home economics. If they had to provide a work in far away places, the time spent on the road was not calculated in the count of the statute labour. A more convenient alternative for the serf was the ransom of the statute labour.


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  14. Ioan GOMAN, Aspecte privind adaptarea la economia de schimb a marilor proprietari de pământ din Crişana în secolul al XVIII-lea şi prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea
    article language: Romanian, page 197

    Aspects of Adaptation to the Economy Instead of the Big Landowners in Crişana in the 18th Century and the First Half of the 19th Century
    Abstract in:English

    The paper tries to highlight how the reform measures promoted by the Habsburg authorities in the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century will be found again in the directions of economic action of the big landowners in Crisana during this period. The forms of adaptation to the rigors of economic exchange, the actions carried on by the land owners in order to highlight the available agricultural and industrial potential, as well the results obtained by implementing such measures (identified and illustrated by a large variety of examples), will constitute the main guidelines of our approach.


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  15. Gianfranco GIRAUDO, Patriottismo e devozione nella rivoluzione veneziana 22 marzo 1848 - 31 agosto 1849
    article language: Italian, page 211

    Patriotism and Devotion in the Venetian Revolution 22 March 1848-31 August 1849
    Abstract in:English

    This article investigates some aspects of everyday’s life in Venice during the “revolution”, March 1848 to August 1849. Firstable, we examined the popular devotion towards the Virgin, which has been considered the beloved protector of the Serenissima. Then we examined the attitude of the Patriarch, who was a well known humanist and above all a skilfull politician. Finaly, we presented some satirical leaflets and journals that were published in those years. At the end of our work, we concluded that the Venitian insurrection and the whole Risorgimento were an unitary movement.


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  16. Gabriela ANANIE, Macedoromânii din Bihor. Oameni şi fapte
    article language: Romanian, page 231

    The Macedoromanians from Bihor. People and Deeds
    Abstract in:English

    The social and cultural impact of the macedoromanians on the people and land of Bihor, was not superficial, but a profound and lasting one. They influenced the history of these places more by their personal implication in religious – they were fighters and keepers of the orthodox cult – and cultural actions, than through their economic activities, in which they have exceled. Although, in time, they have merged with the native population, their contribution in the development of romanian society was one of mark.


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  17. Elena Csobai, Emilia Martin, Comunităţile româneşti din judeţele Hajdú-Bihar şi Szabolcs-Szatmár
    article language: Romanian, page 243

    Romanian communities in Hajdú Bihar and Szabolc-Szatmár counties
    Abstract in:English

    Romanian presence in the basin of the three Cris can be documented from the thirteenth century. About Romanians through the Black Cris, the Diocese of Oradea feudal remembers the first time in 1294, but their existence can be traced stretching and Nyírség and the counties of Szabolcs-Szatmár.

    History of the Romanians from the present territory of Hungary from the eighteenth century, may be best known through the documents kept in the archives of the church. According to existing documents, the Romanians in Bihar, and Szabolcs Szatmár, mostly, were established in rural areas and today the end of the eighteenth century, during the eighteenth century and, in some cases, the nineteenth century. In the following centuries, migration serfs who, seeking better living conditions, moved to the plains, continued.


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  18. Cornelia ROMÂNAŞU, Câteva aspecte privind activitatea cultural-filantropică iniţiată de Banca „Râureana” din Copalnic-Mănăştur (1892-1918)
    article language: Romanian, page 257

    Some Aspects Regarding the Cultural and Philanthropic Activity Initiated by Râureana Bank from Copalnic – Manastur (1892-1918)
    Abstract in:English

    „Râureana” Bank was founded in 1892, in Copalnic-Mănăştur, Solnoc-Dabaca county, region situated along the Lapus river. The documentary sources reveal some of the names of the institution’s founders: Dr. Vasile Lucaciu, Alexiu Stupar, who became the bank’s notary, Dr. Gavril Buzura and Dr. Nicolae Petrovan.

    The bank was involved, depending its economical power, in a series of cultural and philanthropic activities with the purpose of improving the life conditions of the paupers, as well as the supporting and the affirmation of the national culture of the Romanians from the historical region of Maramures.

    The money funds had been directed towards agriculture, commerce, industry and towards the social and the cultural and philanthropic sectors. These were necessary all the more as the Austro-Hungarian state had not supported, under any circumsstance, the cultural initiatives of the non-Hungarian nations which were part of the cosmopolitan monarchy.


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  19. Radu ROMÂNAŞU, Contribuţii la istoricul asociaţionismului cultural românesc din Bihor. Despărţământul „Astrei” din Marghita (1910-1918)
    article language: Romanian, page 263

    Contributions to the Hystory of the Romanian Cultural Association in Bihor County. The ASTRA Branch from Marghita (1910-1918)
    Abstract in:English

    The ASTRA branch from Marghita was the forth, in cronological order after those from Beius, Oradea and Ceica founded in Bihor. It’s establishment , in the year of 1910 was the result of a long process, elaborate preparation by the local intellectuals, who activelly participated at the efforts laid-down by the ASTRA Associasion with the goal of raising throught culture the Transylvania Romanian nation during the monarchy of Austro-Hungaria.

    It’s cultural activity came to being throught organizing numerous cultural-artistic moments: conferences, the foundation of people’s libraries, teaching classes for the rural population.

    Not at all times did the initiatives accomplished their goal, but ihe importancy was the will of changing the mentality throught adopting new modern elements, which alloweded the speedy conscription of conscience and national deed of Romanian Bihor county people towards gaining their natural rights.


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  20. Corina MOISA, Gabriel MOISA, Date privind evoluţia instituţiilor sanitare din judeţul Bihor
    article language: Romanian, page 269

    Data on the Development of the Health Institutions in Bihor County
    Abstract in:English

    The first medical institutions in Bihor County appear inside the monasteries or near the churches. Initially they had not a well-defined profile serving to housing the elderly, sick or injured travelers, the poor. At the general meeting of the county on 21 September 1804, it raises the question of financing the new building and because the funds collected were not plentiful, they proposed the sale of the hospitals operating in the county at that time. Beginning with 1853 the hospital grants the status of “public hospital”. After 1861, they put the hospital under the administrative control of a hospital committee, which included elected members of county councilors, primary and secondary doctors of the hospital, the cashier, the lawyer and the county clerk, chairperson being the county sub-prefect. Receiving this organizational form the \hospital changes its name becoming county hospital.


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  21. Lucia CORNEA, Vechi ateliere fotografice orădene. Patroni, personal angajat, ucenici
    article language: Romanian, page 277

    Anciens ateliers photographiques d’Oradea. Patrons, personnel employé, apprentis.
    Abstract in:French

    Les catégories professionnelles ayant travaillé dans les ateliers photographiques d’Oradea entre 1850 et 1950 sont assez sommairement connues aujourd’hui vu les difficultés de reconstitution de l’organisation de ces ateliers. Les informations sont peu nombreuses et proviennent de différentes sources. Malheureusement, l’auteur n’a eu à sa disposition que peu de données concrètes concernant la période ancienne de la photographie à Oradea quant à la qualification et à la reconnaissance officielle de la qualité de maître photographe. De ce fait, les conclusions de cet ouvrage se réfèrent surtout à la période de l’entre-deux- guerres et aux premières années d’après guerre.

    Les sources utilisées pour cet ouvrage sont: quelques anciens registres faisant partie des Archives de la Mairie d’Oradea (l’Index des patrons aux apprentis; les Registres patrons-personnel employé; le Registre des contrats d’apprentissage), les annonces d’offre d’emploi passées dans les journaux par les patrons-photographes, d’ autres annonces diverses et informations parues dans la presse professionnelle mais aussi dans la presse locale. En même temps, l’auteur a recueilli environ l’an 2000 les témoignages de quelques anciens photographes d’Oradea: Olga Weisz-Grünfeld, Ida Olah, Ilona Balog-Eidlitz. Quelques informations utiles ont été puisées dans le fonds Association des Petits Artisans d’ Oradea qui se trouve aux Archives Nationales, Direction Départementale de Bihor.

    Toutes les données utilisées pour cette recherche mènent à la conclusion que tant aux dernières décennies du XIXe siècle que dans la première moitié du XXe siècle, la formation de vrais professionnels dans le domaine de la photographie s’est réalisée exclusivement sur place, dans les ateliers, sur le tas. Ce processus, incluant aussi une instruction théorique adéquate, était attentivement suivi et surveillé par les autorités spécialisées de l’Etat.


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  22. Mihaela GOMAN, Din activitatea lui Constantin Daicoviciu la Institutul de Studii Clasice al Universităţii „Regele Ferdinand I” din Cluj (I)
    article language: Romanian, page 293

    Aspects of Constantin Daicoviciu`s Activity at the Institute of Classical Studies of the University „King Ferdinand I” from Cluj (I)
    Abstract in:English

    The Institute of Classical Studies had an important role as part of the University “King Ferdinand I” from Cluj. It was a “laboratory” in which were formed generations of researchers and specialists in archaeology and history, some of them being coopted since they were students in the last year of faculty. It was also the situation of Constantin Daicoviciu, who in 1921 was named practitioner, in 1930 administrator and later director of the reputed institution from Cluj.


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  23. Antonio FAUR, Problematica salvării evreilor din Transilvania de Nord şi Ungaria (1944). Percepţii istoriografice (1944-1946)
    article language: Romanian, page 307

    Saving the Jews within Northern Transylvania and Hungary (1944). Historiographical Perceptions (1944-1946)
    Abstract in:English

    Some comments from the historiography in the last two decades have claimed that actions to rescue the Jews to Transylvania and Hungary are very little known because there have not been investigations (with the required assiduity) of the documentary funds of state institutions in Romania, as of individuals involved in such events. In addition, memoir documents have been scarcely published by victims of the Holocaust, in comparaison with the actual realities of 1944. In order to establish as accurately as possible what is the progress of this historical research, the author examines the period 1944-1946, to highlight historigraphical perceptions related to forms of solidarity between Romanian inhabitants near the border with Hungary and Holocaust victims. Opinions of witnesess and participants in the dramatic events of the spring and summer of 1944 have been updated. This aspect of human solidarity has lately come to the increasing attention in historical research, which means that a necessary repair had been made.


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  24. Ovidiu PASCU, Aparate de fotografiat din colecţia Muzeului Ţării Crişurilor: Smena
    article language: Romanian, page 315

    Cris County Museum’s Colection Cameras: Smena
    Abstract in:English

    The Smena cameras (in translation “New Generation”), widely spread in socialist`s block countries, began to be produced in 1953, in Leningrad. The cameras were made until 1991. Among the many models, in Criş County Museum`s colection there are Smena and Smena M8 models, both in a working state.


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  25. Gabriel MOISA, Cultul personalităţii lui Nicolae Ceauşescu şi muzeele de istorie în România anilor ’80
    article language: Romanian, page 319

    The Cult of Nicolae Ceauşescu’s personality and History Museums in the Years 1980 in Romania
    Abstract in:English

    Under communist rule, romanian museography was more and more used for propagandistic purposes as years passed. Curators were involved, involuntarily in most cases, in the specific actions of the totalitarian regime propaganda. This made the institutions live in an increasingly limitted and extremely well controlled cultural horizon. Too few uncontrolled manoeuvre elements could be performed by Romanian museums. In a totalitarian political system, such as the Romanian one, museums were able to survive, grow and manifest themselves only under almost exclusively politically dictated terms.


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  26. Ion ZAINEA, Aspecte din activitatea cenzurii comuniste: controlul producţiei de carte social-politică. tendinţe şi fenomene semnalate în cursul anului 1972
    article language: Romanian, page 333

    Aspects of the Communist Censorship Activity: the Control of the Production for Social-Political Book. Trends and Phenomena Reported during 1972
    Abstract in:English

    The censorship of the works with social and political content has been done in the Ideology Service from the General Directorate for Press and Prints. For the structure or their “inappropriate” orientation, a series of materials either have been

    removed entirely or have been subject to substantial changes. Some are accused for “not analyzing critically” and “not limiting by ideas and unacceptable sentences”. Others are being reproached “objectivist manner, the distorted manner or one-sided presentation of cases in Western countries”. Others included “imprecations at against the socialist countries or inappropriate comments at their relationship”, or “were pleading for solutions” that contravened the guidelines of communist Romania. In a word “they were treating apolitical” various economic and social aspects of the contemporary.

    Only during 1972, when reporting the lecturers-censors, the publishers have delayed the publication of 70 articles, reviews, reports of reading, research of volumes. Some of them have received “BT” after substantial renovations, but in some cases, they have definitively abandoned their publication.


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